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Eruvin 101

ERUVIN 101 - has been generously dedicated by Rav Mordechai Rabin of London/Yerushalayim



(a) A Muktzah is a storage-yard behind the house that is not in constant use, and one tends to make a temporary door which is not properly fitted, but that can be easily detached and placed on the floor.

(b) To be able to put a door in place, it must be tied and suspended in thr air (with not even one end touching the ground - which Chazal refer to as dragging).

(c) Putting up a door which is ...

1. ... not tied - is Binyan.
2. ... tied but not suspended - looks like Binyan.
(d) 'Chadakim she'ba'Pirtzah' - is a bundle of thorns which one uses to fill in a gap in a wall, and which one sometimes removes.
(a) Rava establishes the Beraisa which permits putting a door in place even if it is dragging on the ground, by one which *had* a hinge (and is therefore clearly recognizable as a door) - even if it does not have one now.

(b) 'Kankan ha'Nigrar' - is the part of the plow-share that one holds on to - behind the plow, which the Tana in the Beraisa tells, may be used to bolt a door as long as it is tied even if it is not suspended, but dragging - as long as it is not lying completely on the ground.

(c) Yom-Tov has exactly the same Din as Shabbos regarding the above.

(a) Deles Almanah is either a door that is made of one piece of wood, or one whose boards are not connected with bars, which would demonstrate that it is indeed a door.

(b) The Chidush of 'Deles Almanah ha'Nigreres Ein No'alin Bah' - is that, even though it has a hinge, it is nevertheless forbidden to put it up.

(a) When placing a Madurta, a Bei'asa, a Kidra, a Puri'a and a Chavita one must be careful to put the top section in place before the lower one, in order to avoid Binyan Ohel.


1. Madurta is a fire, where one places some logs on top of others that are placed slightly apart (thereby forming an Ohel - which is the central issue in all the cases). 2. Bei'asa is eggs that one places on top of two pieces of wood placed slightly apart, over the fire to roast.
3. Is a pot that one places on top of two barrels placed slightly apart.
4. Puri'ah is a portable leather bed that one fits on to a frame by means of loops.
4. Chavita is the way that one arranges the barrels, one on top of the other, in the wine-cellar.
(c) The first three cases are speaking about Yom-Tov, not Shabbos.

(d) Rebbi Yehoshua explained the analogy of the Tzadikim to thorns by establishing the thorns as the bundle of thorns referred to above (in 1d): Just as the bundle of thorns protect the breach, so too, do the Tzadikim shield over Klal Yisrael. Alternatively, the Navi means to say that the Tzadikim cause the evil nations of the world to become crushed in the World to Come.

(a) Rebbi Meir prohibits standing in a Reshus ha'Yachid and opening a door in a Reshus ha'Rabim or vice-versa - because he is afraid that one may transfer the key to where he is standing.

(b) The case of standing in a Reshus ha'Rabim and opening a door in a Reshus ha'Yachid speaks when he takes the key from the roof to open the door in a lock which is higher than ten Tefachim; Rebbi Meir is afraid that he will lower the key to within ten Tefachim from the ground.

(c) In order to be allowed to carry, he will be obligated to build himself a Mechitzah of ten Tefachim on three sides, thereby enclosing the entire space in question, and forming a Reshus haYachid.

(d) But how can that be, the Chachamim asked Rebbi Meir? That is exactly what happened in the butcher's market, and they all used to open the door using the key placed on the window-ledge near the door (which was *above* ten Tefachim, as was the lock)?

(a) Yerushalayim is a Karmelis because the doors at both ends of its main road were kept locked at night.

(b) Rav Papa answers this by differentiating between the time *before* the walls of Yerushalayim (and its doors) were breached (when it is a Karmelis), and *afterwards* (when it became a Reshus ha'Rabim - and that is when our Mishnah speaks).

(c) A garden is considered a Karmelis - because it is more than a Beis Sasayim, and not Hukaf le'Dirah.

(d) Rebbi Meir is speaking about taking the key for the garden through a hole in the wall which divides between his yard and the garden, and wants to open the door via the garden.



7) Regarding a garden which adjoins a Reshus ha'Rabim, when there is a Beis Sha'ar adjoining the door that leads from one to the other, Rebbi Meir holds that he can only open the door from inside the Beis Sha'ar, on whichever side it is.


(a) To open the lock of a shop that is below ten Tefachim from the street -one must place the key on the floor of the threshold.

(b) When the Tana says '*ve'Chen* Chanuyos ha'Pesuchos li'Reshus ha'Rabim, bi'Zeman she'ha'Man'ul le'Matah me'Asarah Tefachim' - he wants to inform us that he is speaking about an Iskupas Karmelis, otherwise, Rebbi Meir would not permit standing in one major Reshus and carrying in another - as we saw in the Reisha (of 'Pischei Sha'arei Ginah' - see Tosfos DH 'mi'de'Ka'amar').

(c) From the fact that Rebbi Meir now permits standing in the street and moving the key (below ten Tefachim) in a Karmelis, we learn that Rebbi Meir retracted from his original stance, in forbidding even *that* (as we saw a little earlier).

(a) If the lock is above ten Tefachim, he leaves the key on top of the lock, or on a window-ledge that is higher than ten Tefachim, from which he is permitted to take it when he stands on the Iskupah.

(b) If the surface-area of the lock would be ...

1. ...less than four by four Tefachim - then it would be a Makom Petur. Why would Rebbi Meir forbid taking from it even if it was *above* ten Tefachim and the actual lock was *lower*.
2. ... more than four by four Tefachim - then how can the Rabbanan permit taking the key from the Iskupas Karmelis to open a door in the Reshus ha'Yachid (above ten Tefachim)?
(c) We therefore establish the surface-area of the lock as being less than four by four Tefachim, but with additional space from which one could cut out to make it four by four: Rebbi Meir holds 'Chokekin Lehashlim (as we learnt above on Daf 11a) - making the area in question a Reshus haYachid, and the Rabbanan do not (in which case it remains a Makpm Petur).

(d) We also learn from the Rabbanan (who forbid taking from the Iskupas Karmelis and after opening the lock [a Makom Petur], to place the key on the window-ledge which is above ten Tefachim and more than four by four Tefachim) that one may not use a Makom Petur to transfer from one Reshus to another (even if one of them is Reshus de'Rabbanan - like Ze'iri on 97b).

(a) Bolting a door using a straight bolt that is not fixed to the door, is prohibited - because the (unformed) bolt is Muktzah.

(b) Rebbi Yossi permits a 'Nagar she'Yesh be'Rosho Gelustera' i.e. a bolt that has a thickened top and is fit to use as a pestle to pound pepper, in which case it is a K'li (albeit a K'li she'Melachto le'Isur), and may now be used as a bolt.

(c) Rebbi Yossi argues that (by the incident with Raban Gamliel and the Elders) it was exactly the opposite: initially, it was customarily forbidden, and it was the Elders who permitted it.

(d) The Machlokes Tana'im is when the rounded bolt is tied, but with such weak string, that if one were to attempt to pick it up by the string, the string would break. Rebbi Yossi considers this sufficient to render it tied, Rebbi Eliezer does not - and we are now about to learn that a bolt must be fixed or at least tied to the door before it may be used.

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