ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous dafEruvin 99
(a) Someone who urinates or spits from one Major Reshus to another is
Chayav. Normally, we require an Akirah from a location that is four
Tefachim by four Tefachim - but not here, where the need to urinate or to
spit, gives Chashivus to the Makom, even though it is less.
(b) Rava (or Rabah) said that if someone threw something into a dog's
mouth or into a furnace, he is Chayav Chatas - in spite of the fact that
the former is less than four Tefachim. So we see that sometimes, one's
intention gives a location, Chashivus.
(c) The Gemara asks what the Din will be if 'Hu bi'Reshus ha'Yachid u'Pi
ha'Amah bi'Reshus ha'Rabim' - whether we go after the place of the
*Akirah* (which is in the Reshus ha'Yachid), whereas the Hanachah takes
place in the Reshus ha'Rabim; or whether we go after the location where
the urine *leaves the body* (which is now the same as that of the Hanachah
(in which case he will be Patur).
(a) If a Kohen with Tamei hands who is eating a dried fig of Terumah,
places his hand in his mouth to remove a splinter of wood, Rebbi Meir
renders the fig Tamei - because he holds that the spittle in his mouth is
Machshir the fig, which now becomes Tamei when the hand touches it. Rebbi
Yossi says it remains Tahor - because in his opinion, spittle is not
Machshir until it leaves one's mouth; and a fig which is not Muchshar
Lekabel Tum'ah cannot become Tamei.
(b) Rebbi Yehudah agrees with Rebbi Yossi as long as he has *not* turned
the spittle round in his mouth in order to spit it out, but once he *has*,
the spittle is Chashuv and therefore, Machshir (like Rebbi Meir). But this
is not what he said in our Mishnah, where he considers the spittle
Chashuv, irrespective of whether he turned it round or not?
(c) 'Muchlefes ha'Shitah' - here means that Rebbi Yehudah changed his mind
from his opinion in the Mishnah (though that is not the regular meaning of
(a) According to Resh Lakish, Rebbi Yehudah in our Mishnah is not
referring to spittle, which requires turning over, but to phlegm, which
results from a cough, and which does not require turning over.
(b) The Gemara rejects Resh Lakish's answer - on the basis of a Beraisa,
where Rebbi Yehudah forbids both phlegm and spittle which came loose (even
if they were not turned over). Consequently, we are forced to accept Rebbi
Yochanan's answer (Muchlefes ha'Shitah).
(c) Resh Lakish learns from "Kol Mesan'ai Ahevu Maves" - that someone who
coughs up phlegm and spits it out in from of his Rebbe is Chayav Misah
(a) The Tana of our Mishnah permits standing in one major Reshus and
drinking in the other - only if he bends his head and the majority of his
body into the Reshus in which he is drinking; for fear that otherwise, he
may forget and transfer the water into the Reshus where he is standing.
(b) This is not considered making an Akirah in one Reshus and a Hanachah
in the other i.e. his stomach - because the water always stops in his
(c) Rebbi Meir forbids carrying in the Reshus in which one is not
(d) The author of our Mishnah could well be the Chachamim who argue with
Rebbi Meir in the previous Sugya - because here he wants to drink the
water, and it therefore suits him to transfer it to where he is (in which
case they will agree with Rebbi Meir); where they disagree with him is
there where he does not really want the objects that he is moving, in the
Reshus where he is.
(a) Rava maintains that to forbid drinking from a Reshus d'Oraysa to a
Reshus de'Rabbanan because he may come to transfer from one to the other -
is a Gezeirah li'Gezeirah, which Chazal do not normally issue.
(b) According to Rava, 've'Chen be'Gas' is talking not about Shabbos, but
about Ma'aser; it is permitted to drink wine in a wine-press without
separating Ma'asros, irrespective of whether he dilutes the wine with
*hot* water or with *cold* - provided one stands in the wine-press.
(c) Rebbi Eliezer b'Rebbi Tzadok requires the wine to be Ma'asered in all
(d) The Chachamim make a compromise - they agree with Rebbi Meir if he
diluted the wine with cold water (because he will pour back any wine that
remains), but with Rebbi Eliezer b'Rebbi Tzadok if he used hot water
(because he will not pour back the remaining wine).
(a) A Mazchilah - is a gutter which runs parallel to the roof, and into
which the water from the roof is drained, to prevent the walls from
getting spoilt (due to the water running on to them from the roof. It is
forbidden to drink from it directly or to take water directly from it -
even when it is less than ten Tefachim from the ground, because, seeing as
it does not protrude more than three Tefachim from the roof, it is as if
he was drinking or collecting directly from the roof (from the Reshus
ha'Yachid to the Reshus ha'Rabim).
(b) A Tzinor - is a pipe that carries water from the roof but which
protrudes more than three Tefachim from the roof. Consequently, seeing as
it is within ten Tefachim of the street, one is permitted to drink from
it directly or to collect water from it directly - since he is only
transferring from a Reshus ha'Rabim to a Reshus ha'Rabim. Note: The above
distinction pertains to *drinking* dierectly from them. As far as
*collecting* is concerned, even collecting water from a pipe that is
*above* ten Tefachim is also permitted (see final words of Rashi, end of
(c) The Gemara proves Rav Nachman's reason for the prohibition in a. from
the Beraisa 'Omed Adam bi'Reshus ha'Yachid u'Magbi'a Yado Lema'alah
me'Asarah le'Pachos mi'Sheloshah Samuch le'Gag', which concludes
'u'Vilevad she'Lo Yetzaref' - we see from here that Tziruf within three
Tefachim is forbidden, but from more than three Tefachim, it is permitted.
(d) The Beraisa we just quoted is dealing precisely with the Sha'aleh of
drinking from one person's roof to another's, and it permits drinking or
collecting the water away from the roof, but forbids drinking or
(a) The wall around the well is necessary - because we are speaking when
the well is a slight distance away from the wall of his house.
Consequently, when he draws the water from the well and pulls the bucket
up to his window, he will otherwise be carrying from one Reshus ha'Yachid
to another via the Reshus ha'Rabim, which is forbidden (whereas now, wityh
the wall, he is carrying from one Reshus ha'Yachid to another via a Makom
We are not afraid that the trash-heap may have been removed, because the
Mishnah is speaking about a *public* trash-heap, which is not removed
often. If it was somebody's private trash-heap that was lying outside his
window, it would indeed be forbidden to throw on to it without checking
first, for fear that the owner may have removed it.
(b) The wall is not necessary when the well is directly beneath his
(c) Rebbi Yochanan establishes our Mishnah, not when the wall itself is
ten Tefachim high, but when the wall complements the ten Tefachim which
the pit was lacking.
(a) One is permitted to carry underneath the branches of a tree without an
Eruv - provided they descend to within three Tefachim of the ground, and
provided the space underneath the tree does not exceed a Beis Sasayim
(Note: there is actually a third condition. See Rosh Si'man 9, quoting a
Gemara in Sucah).
(b) One may sit on the roots of a tree that have sprouted out from the
ground - provided they have not grown to a height of three Tefachim.