ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous dafEruvin 97
(a) The Gemara concludes that everyone agrees with Rebbi Elazar's Din
(that nobody would take the trouble to re-spin torn threads to attach to
the border of one's clothes), and the reason that Rebbi Yehudah forbids
carrying in new Tefilin, is not because of the suspicion that they may be
Kamei'in, but because the straps have not yet been tied into the correct
type of knots - and since tying a knot is prohibited on Shabbos, there is
no way that one can carry theTefilin inside wearing them.
(b) There is no proof from here that a bow is not acceptable for Tefilin -
perhaps it is, but Rebbi Yehudah forbids saving them because, in his
opinion, a bow is considered a knot on Shabbos, and is forbidden.
(c) We are not advocating tying an ordinary bow, according to Rebbi
Yehudah; what we *are* advocating is making a bow in the form of the knot
that is required for Tefilin (i.e. like a 'Daled' or a 'Mem').
(d) We know that the 'Daled' and the 'Yud' made in the Tefilin straps,
should be visible - from the Pasuk '*ve'Ra'u* Chol Amei ha'Aretz Ki Shem
Hashem Nikra Alecha' ... which pertains to Tefilin. So we see, that all
parts which make up the Name of Hashem should be visible.
(a) When Rav Chisda quoting Rav, says that someone who buys Tefilin
wholesale from an uncertified salesman, must examine three individual
Tefilin before the seller becomes certified - he speaks about a salesman
who always buys from the same Tefilin-maker (a fact that we normally take
for granted). What he therefore means is that the customer must examine
either *two* Shel Yad and *one* Shel Rosh or vice-versa, after which, the
Tefilin-maker becomes certified (as far as he is concerned). From then on,
he is permitted to buy from him blind.
(b) Should he examine only three Tefilin Shel Yad or three of Tefilin Shel
Rosh - then he will only be certified for the type that he examined, but
not for the other.
(c) The examination of three pieces or even sets of Tefilin will not be
effective - if we know that the salesman tends to buy from different
(a) Rav interprets the Beraisa: 'bi'Tefilin, Bodek Shalosh Shel Yad
ve'shel Rosh - to mean 'Bodek Shalosh, Mehen Shel Yad, u'Mehen Shel Rosh'.
(b) The Beraisa: 'bi'Tefilin, Bodek Shetayim, Shel Yad ve'Shel Rosh' - he
will explain in the same way, only the author of that Beraisa is Rebbi, in
whose opinion *two* constitutes a Chazakah.
(c) The Seifa 've'Chen be'Tzeves ha'Sheni, ve'Chen be'Tzeves ha'Shelishi'
- goes like Rebbi too, and Rebbi agrees that when the salesman buys
bundles of Tefilin, that there is no Chazakah, since one tends to buy
bundles from different Tefilin-makers.
(d) The Tana mentions 'Shelishi' to inform us the above Chidush - namely,
that when he buys bundles of Tefilin, there is no Chazakah. In fact, the
same will apply to any subsequent purchase that he makes - each one will
require an independent examination.
(a) Tzevasin - means sets of Shel Yad and Shel Rosh; whereas Kerichos
means a number of Shel Yad or a number of Shel Rosh.
(b) The Mishnah is speaking when there are so many pairs, that he will not
finish saving them by nightfall. Consequently, since he will anyway be
obligated to continue with the Mitzvah after nightfall, Chazal did not
bother him to begin on Shabbos. All he needs to do is to wait until after
Shabbos, and then, to carry them all inside in one trip.
(a) Our Mishnah: 'u've'Sakanah, Mechasan ve'Holech' - is speaking about
the danger of *gentile* robbers, who will kill him should they find
wearing Tefilin; whereas the Beraisa: 'u've'Sakanah, Molichan Pachos
Pachos me'Arba Amos' - is speaking about the danger of *Jewish* robbers,
who will not threaten him because he is wearing Tefilin.
(b) Before Rebbi Shimon comments in the Seifa, we need to add to the
Mishnah 'Bameh Devarim Amurim, be'Sakanas Ovdei-Kochavim, Aval be'Sakanas
Listim, Molichan Pachos Pachos me'Arba Amos'.
1. The Tana Kama prefers the method of carrying them less than four Amos
at a time - because involving more people (as Rebbi Shimon advocates),
creates a negative Shabbos atmosphere.
(b) 've'Chen Be'no' means - that the same will apply to carrying a baby
that was born out in the field, whom they now need to carry into town for
the Bris Milah.
2. ... Rebbi Shimon prefers the method of handing them to one's friend
etc. - because by carrying them less than four Amos at a time (as the
Tana Kama advocates), there is always the fear that one may inadvertently
carry them *more* than four Amos - even just once.
(a) Rebbi Yehudah agrees with the principle 'ha'Beheimah ve'ha'Kelim
ke'Raglei ha'Ba'alim'. However, he follows his own reasoning in Beitzah,
where he says that water is different, because it is not considered a real
object, and therefore is not Koneh Shevisah.
(b) Rebbi Yehudah advocates carrying the water - by pouring it from one
barrel to another.
(a) Rebbi Yehudah says in Beitzah that although he agrees with the
Chachamim, who say that if a woman borrowed various ingredients to make a
dough, then the dough may be carried only to places which the various
owners may go, he disagrees with them as far as the owner of the *water*
goes. According to him, the owner of the water does not forbid the dough
to be taken outside his Techum.
(b) The Gemara rejects this contention however, on the grounds that Rebbi
Yehudah only made his statement with regard to a *dough*, where the water
is not visible, but that he would not say such a thing by a *barrel of
water*, where the water is visible as a separate entity. How do we know
that? Because in a Beraisa, Rebbi Yehudah holds that even in a *pot*,
where the water is absorbed in the food, it is not Batel, how much more so
when it is in a *barrel*!
(c) So Rava establishes Rebbi Yehudah - by water which was *not* Koneh
Shevisah, and a barrel which *was*, only the barrel is Batel to the water
(d) The Mishnah in Shabbos says that if someone carries out a corpse on a
bed, he is Patur even for carrying the bed, because it is Batel to the
(a) On account of the Beraisa, where Rebbi Yehudah confines the Heter of
passing on a barrel of water to a Shayara - Rav Yosef establishes our
Mishnah too, by a Shayara, where Chazal permitted transporting the barrel
of water, because of the urgency of the situation.
(b) Abaye learns that the Beraisa which confines the concession to a
Shayara, is speaking when both the barrel and the water acquired Shevisah;
whereas our Mishnah is speaking about a barrel which *was* Koneh Shevisah
but water which was *not*. Consequently, it is permitted to transport them
anywhere even not by a Shayara.
(c) Rav Ashi establishes our Mishnah by both a barrel and water which were
*not* Koneh Shevisah - and the Amru Lo (who are none other than Rebbi
Yochanan ben Nuri) hold 'Cheftzei Hefker Konin Shevisah'; consequently,
when they say 'Lo Tehalech Yoser me'Raglei Ba'aleha', they actually mean
to say that the barrel of water may go no further than a barrel of water
that did have an owner.
(a) Our Mishnah permits rolling back a Sefer whose one end rolled out of
his hands and whose other end he still holding - precisely because he is
still holding the other end, in which case, he is Patur.
(b) Our Mishnah records that, if a Sefer fell from his hands and it landed
to within ten Tefachim of the street, he turns it upside-down, so that the
writing is facing downwards.
(c) Rebbi Yehudah says that even if it no more than a hairsbreadth from
the ground, one may retrieve it (this will explained later).
(d) Rebbi Shimon is the most lenient of all. According to him, even if it
has already landed on the street, he may roll it back, since Chazal
permitted all Isurei de'Rabbanan, by to Sifrei Kodesh.