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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Eruvin 58



(a) We learn from the Pasuk "Orech he'Chatzer ... ve'Rochav Chamishim *ba'Chamishim*" - that when measuring Techum Shabbos, one should use a rope of fifty Amos. (Note: according to those who Techumin is mi'de'Rabbanan, this Derashah can only be an Asmachta).

(b) We also learn from the same phrase - the Shiur of a Beis Sasayim - seventy and two thirds Amos - the square of the fifty by a hundred Amos of the courtyard of the Mishkan (where the Rabbanan forbade to carry when is was not Hukaf le'Dirah). We learn two things from the same Pasuk; one from the word 'ba'Chamishim', and the other, because otherwise, the Torah should have written "Chamishim *Chamishim*" (and not *ba'Chamishim*).

(c) Afaskima is a rope made of a creeper that grows round the palm tree.

(d) The Beraisa later says that one should use a flax rope for measuring Techumin.

(a) The reason that a rope is used for measuring Techum Shabbos, and not a metal chain - is because of the Pasuk in Zecharyah "u've'Yado Chevel Midah" from which we see that for measuring, a rope should be used.

(b) The Pasuk in Yechezkel "u've'Yad ha'Ish Keneh ha'Midah" - refers to measuring the gateways (both Pesukim are written in connection with the Mishkan of Yechezkel - i.e. the third Beis ha'Mikdash).

(c) They specifically tied the Red Heifer (prior to burning it) with a reed rope, which is not subject to Tum'ah (and they were extremely particular about Tum'ah in all preparations of the Parah Adumah).

(d) 'Netzarim' - means twined willows, or the creeper that grows round the palm-tree.

(a) If the measurers encounter a high wall whilst measuring - they assess its thickness and continue on the other side.

(b) 'Makdir ve'Oleh, Makdir ve'Yored' means - that they use the process of measuring known as Kidur when they climb the hill (this will be explained on the next Amud), and when they descend on the other side (this will be explained in more detail on the next Amud).

(c) 've'Im Hayah Gei Me'ukam' ... means - 'if the valley extends around the town in a way that ruls out going to the side of it and measuring from there' ... .

(d) Rashi rejects the explanation that it is a gradual incline (see Tosfos DH 've'Im')

(a) Kidur applies when the slope of the wall is a gentle one, so that it is possible to ascend it, but not when it is too steep for that. Then we merely absorb it or assess its width and continue measuring on the other side.

(b) 'Chut ha'Mishkoles Yored Kenegdo' means - that the valley is so steep that the plumb-line is able to descend to the bottom of the slope (i.e. the angle of the slope is so acute that the foot of the slope is less than four Amos out from the top-edge of the precipice.

(c) In that case, one is obligated to descend to the bottom of the ravine and measure the ravine in the normal way.




(a) According to Rav Yosef, if the wadi is deeper than two thousand Amos - instead of Havla'ah, one is Mekader (although, considering the steep angle of the slope, it is not clear why Chazal demanded this).

(b) Rav Yosef, who gives the maximum depth of the wadi (with regard to Havla'ah) as two thousand Amos, follows the opinion of Acherim, who holds like that in another Beraisa.

(c) In the second Lashon, Rav Yosef permits Havla'ah even when the wadi is *more* than two thousand Amos deep - when the plumb-line reaches the bottom, whereas Acherim and the Rabbanan argue there where it does not.

(a) When our Mishnah permits the measurers to 'absorb' the hill or the mountain in their path, says Rava - that is only if its gradient is 10 in 24; but if it is 10 in 30, then they are obligated to measure it normally (i.e. with the rope following the angle of the slope).

(b) According to Rav Huna Brei de'Rav Yehoshua's interpretation of Rava, Havla'ah is only necessary by a wadi whose gradient is 10 in 30, but if it is 10 in 24, then even Havla'ah is not necessary - one simply assesses the distance and continues.

(a) For Kidur - a rope of four Amos is required.

(b) The two measurers do Kidur - by the one below holding one end of the four Amah rope by his heart, and the one above, by his feet.

(c) When they measured the distance with regard to Eglah Arufah and Ir Miklat - they were obligated to measure it in the normal manner, irrespective of the gradient or the depth of the wadi. This is because they are d'Oraysa, and it is only with regard to Eruvin, which are de'Rabbanan, that the Rabbanan allowed the concessions of Havla'ah and Kidur.

(d) The fact that Ir Miklat is a matter of Piku'ach Nefesh - will make no difference whatsoever, since there is no Safek here, and the fact that the Rabbanan introduced their own leniencies to their own Dinim will not affect d'Oraysos in any way.

(a) Only experts are eligible to measure Techumin (according to Rashi - see Tosfos DH 'Ein' where Rabeinu Chananel explanains 'Mumcheh' differently).

(b) If the marker at the south-east corner does not correspond with the one on the south-west - we assume that those who measured the shorter distance erred (Safek Eruv Lekulah), and extend it until it is adjacent with the longer one (Se Tosfos 59a DH 'le'Makom').

(c) Even a slave or a maidservant is believed to give testimony as to where the Techum of a town ends - although a minor is *not*.

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