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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Eruvin 54

ERUVIN 54 - has been dedicated by the Feldman family in honor of the Yahrzeit of the Lubavitcher Rebbe, Nishmaso b'Ginzei Meromim.



(a) Rav advised Rav Hamnuna - to use his wealth whilst he had it, and not to hoard it, since he will have no use for it in the World to Come, and in *this* world, death comes suddenly. Why not save it for one's children, one may ask? What guarantee does one have that his children will not squander it or lose it!

(b) A person who is traveling and has no-one to accompany him - should study Torah, since the Pasuk in Mishlei writes "Ki Livyas Chen Hem le'Roshecha" - There is no chaperone like Torah!

(c) We learn from the Pasuk in Mishlei ...

1. ... "Ki Livyas Chen Hem *le'Roshecha*, Anakim *le'Gargerosecha"* - that someone who has headaches or whose throat hurts him should study Torah.
2. ... "Rif'us Te'hi *le'Sharecha*, ve'Shikuy *le'Atzmosecha"* - that someone who has stomach-ache or whose bones hurt should study Torah.
3. ... "u'le'Chol Besaro Marpei" - that someone whose whole body hurts him should study Torah.
(d) If a doctor prescribes a certain medicine for one limb, then it will inevitably have harmful side-effects with regard to other limbs. Not so Hashem! He has prescribed Torah as the ultimate cure for all limbs - with *no* side effects at all. That is what we learn from "u'le'Chol Besaro Marpei".
(a) We learn from the Pasuk in Mishlei ...
1. ... "Ki Na'im Ki Sishmerem be'Vitnecha, Yichonu Yachdav Al Sefasecha" - that Torah is only good if one remembers it (retains it in one's stomach), and that, in order to do so, one needs to learn it with one's mouth - i.e. verbally?
2. ... "Simchah le'Ish be'Ma'aneh Piv" - that true happiness only comes from learning verbally.
3. ... "Simchah le'Ish be'Ma'aneh Piv, ve'Davar be'Ito Mah Tov" - that one only gets joy out of one's learning either when one is able to able to answer the right thing at the right time (e.g. the Dinim of Pesach on Pesach), or when one is able to conclude what he learns Lehalachah (though it is unclear what this has to do with 'Davar be'Ito').
(b) "Ta'avas Libo Nasato Lo" - implies that Hashem gives a person all his desires (without his having to ask for them); whereas "va'Areshes Sefasav Bal Mana'ta Selah" - implies that he needs to ask for it first?

(c) Rava explains that "Ta'avas Libo Nasato Lo" - speaks when one *has* the merit (i.e. the Mazal), whereas "va'Areshes Sefasav Bal Mana'ta Selah" - speaks when he does *not*.

(d) "la'Netzach", "Selah" and "Va'ed" - all mean eternally, without a break. We know this because, in all three Pesukim, the word "Le'olam" (or "Ad Olam") also appears.

(a) A necklace is worn loose around the neck; in addition, it is sometimes seen, but is generally not (since it is covered by one's chin and beard). What the Pasuk is therefore saying is - that a Talmid-Chacham should be 'loose' i.e. easy-going with other people (soft like a reed, and not hard like a cedar); and that he should, as a rule, not be visible i.e. in the Beis Hamedrash, and not in the market-places.

(b) A Talmid-Chacham should be like a row, which is always trampled - i.e. devoid of arrogance, and like a spice, which gives out its fragrance for others to benefit - so should he transmit his Torah to others.

(a) The Torah refers to the Luchos as 'tablets of stone' - to teach us that, in our learning, we should be like stone, which does not rub out easily i.e. we should revise what we learn until it becomes engraved on our hearts like stone.

(b) When the Torah writes (by the first Luchos) "Charus Al ha'Luchos" - it means that (had they not been broken) they would have had the power to ensure that we would never forget the Torah that we learnt.

(c) One might also read "Charus" as "Cheirus" (meaning free) - implying that, had they not be broken, we would have been free from the dominance of the other nations.

(d) The Pasuk stresses that the Torah was given in a desert - to teach us that, like a desert, we should make ourselves Hefker (humble - like a desert on which everyone treads).

(a) Rav Yosef knew that Rava was there - because, when he tasted the wine that Rava specially prepared for him, he recognized Rava's method of diluting.

(b) Rava explained the Pasuk "u'mi'Midbar Matanah, u'mi'Matanah Nachaliel, u'mi'Nachaliel Bamos, u'mi'Bamos ha'Gay" like this: "u'mi'Midbar Matanah" - once Torah was given to us it became a gift (our own personal property, or it means that we will not forget it); "u'mi'Matanah Nachaliel" - and once it became ours, Hashem inherited us; "u'mi'Nachaliel Bamos" - and once Hashem inherited us, we rose to greatnes; "u'mi'Bamos ha'Gay" - but if it goes to our heads and we become proud, then Hashem will cast us down.

(c) No! That is not the final stage. If we do Teshuvah, then Hashem will raise us up again, as the Pasuk writes in Yeshayah "Kol Gei Yinasei".

(a) When Rav Huna says that the Torah of someone who behaves like a wild beast which tramples and eats, will last, he means that - just like a wild beast tramples on its prey kills it, and is so eager to eat it, that it sets about enjoying its meal immediately, so too, should we be so eager to acquire Torah, that we revise our learning the moment we hear it from our Rebbe.

(b) Rashi reject the explanation that one eat one's food without preparation (such as meat without spices) - on the grounds that the sages were always particular to eat their food in a respectable manner, like kings, (with spices etc.), just as they were particular to dress respectably.

(c) 'Masrachas ve'Ocheles' means - that just like the wild beast eats even when it is dirty, so too, should one learn devoid of conceit.

(d) If someone does this, then Hashem personally will make a Se'udah for him.




(a) The Pasuk compares words of Torah to ...
1. ... figs - because they are unique, inasmuch as they do not all ripen at once. Consequently, whenever one approaches a fig-tree during the summer, he will find ripe figs on it.
2. ... to a female gazelle, because a gazelle, due to its tight womb, gives tremendous pleasure to the male (just like the first time they were together).
3. ... to a nipple, because the baby always finds milk there, whenever it wants to drink. In the same way, whenever one studies Torah, one always finds something new, something that gives one deep pleasure, no less than the first time that one studied the very same Sugya.
(b) Someone once came to take the cloak Rebbi Elazar had left in the lower- market, and he found a serpent guarding it.
1. ... "ve'Holchei" - refers to the Ba'alei Mikra, who study Tenach;
2. ... "Al Derech" - to the Ba'alei Mishnah, and
3. ... "Sichu" - to the Ba'alei Gemara, whose every word is Torah.
(b) The 'Remiyah Tzeido', according to Rav Sheshes - refers to someone who fights the Yetzer-ha'Ra with cunning ('*Arum* be'Yir'ah'); he never goes on to the next Sugya before he has thoroughly revised the one he has just learnt - just like the cunning hunter (Tzayid), who singes the wings of the bird that he has just caught, to prevent it from flying away, before going for his next catch.

(c) Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak took great care to consolidate his learning by revising everything he learnt, before moving on to the next Sugya.

(a) First Aharon would enter and sit in front of Moshe, whilst he taught him whatever he had learnt; then Aharon would sit behind Moshe on his left, and Elazar and Isamar would enter and sit in front of Moshe. When they had finished, they would go and sit, Elazar on Moshe's right, Isamar on his left, and the elders would enter. When they had finished, they would leave, some of them to sit behind Moshe on his right, others on his left. Then, Moshe would teach what he had learnt to the rest of Yisrael. Moshe would then leave, and Aharon would teach everybody; he would leave, and his sons would teach everyone; they would leave, and the elders would teach everybody.

(b) Aharon sat on Moshe's left, rather than on his right - because one only walks or sits, on the right of one Rebbe, when there is someone else to walk or sit on the left.

(c) They all made a point of sitting in front of Moshe, when he taught them - because of the Pasuk in Yeshayah "ve'Hayu Einecha Ro'os es Mor'echa".

(d) We learn from this procedure that one should learn everything (at least) four times.

(a) The reason that they followed the above procedure, rather than Moshe teaching them all four times - is out of deference to Aharon, his sons and the elders.

(b) Yes, it would it have been simpler for Moshe to teach Aharon four times, then Aharon - his sons, Aharon's sons - the elders, and the elders - the rest of Klal Yisrael, each one four times. However, there was a distinct advantage in learning directly from Moshe, who had heard it from the mouth of the Shechinah.

(c) The Rabbanan maintain that, since initially, Aharon needed to sit on Moshe's left, as we explained earlier, Hashem did not want to trouble him to move to his right.

11) Rebbi Akiva learns from ...
1. ... "ve'Lamdah es B'nei Yisrael" - that a Rebbe must learn with his Talmidim until they have absorbed what they have been taught.
2. ... "Simah be'Fihem" - that he must learn with them until they understand it properly.
3. ... "ve'Eileh ha'Mishpatim Asher Tasim Lifeneihem" - that he is obligated to teach them the reasons for everything that they learn.
(a) The Talmid of Rebbi Pereidah once had difficulty in understanding what his Rebbi was teaching him, even after learning it four hundred times - because Rebbi Pereidah intimated that he was in a hurry to leave in order to perform a certain Mitzvah. Concerned that any moment, Rebbi Pereidah may get up and leave, the Talmid was unable to concentrate.

(b) Rebbi Pereidah told him to concentrate, and he would begin all over again - and he did! He learnt it with him another four hundred times.

(c) Hashem asked him whether he would prefer a reward of four hundred years of extra life in this world, or reward in the World to Come.

(d) Although he chose reward in the World to Come (for himself and for his descendants), he received both.

(a) Rebbi Avahu learns from "Hatzivi Lecha Tzivyonim" - that one should make signs (that help one to remember) like those that one often finds in the Gemara (the first letters of subsequent Sugyos).

(b) 'Asei Mo'adim la'Torah' - means fix times for the Talmidim to come and learn (i.e. arrange time-tables - Sedarim - for their learning sessions, so that they should not learn erratically).

(c) We might also interpret ...

1. ... "Lo ba'Shamayim Hi" - to mean that Torah is not to be found among those who are proud like the Heaven;
2. ... "Ve'Lo me'Eiver la'Yam Hi" - to mean that Torah is not be found among those who immerse themselves in business (whose capacity is wide) like the sea - businessmen and merchants.
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