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Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Eruvin 29

ERUVIN 26-29 has been sponsored by Rabbi and Mrs. Eli Turkel of Ra'anana, Israel



(a) A dish of beet-roots is good for - the heart and the eyes, and certainly for the intestines - provided it is very-well cooked.

(b) None of his contempories were quite as sharp as Ben-Azai, who used to expound in the market-places of Teverya. When Rava compared himself to him, he simply meant to say that he was in a good mood, and that so lucid was he mind, that he was ready to tackle the most difficult problems.

(c) When Rava was asked what quantity of apples was required for an Eruv - he replied 'Since when are apples eligible to be used for an Eruv?

(a) When the Beraisa writes: 'Kol ha'Ochlin Mitztarfin Lifsol es ha'Gevi'ah' - it means that even though food cannot transmit Tum'ah to a human by physical contact, the Rabbanan nevertheless decreed Tum'ah on someone who eats two Ke'beitzim of Tamei food, to invalidate him from eating Terumah if he is a Kohen.

(b) The Mishnah of 'Kol ha'Ochlin Mitztarfin Lifsol es ha'Gevi'ah' - is not a Kashya on Rava - because, as we have already learnt, no principle is absolute, there are always exceptions, so 'Kol ha'Ochlin', could well be exclusive of apples.

(c) From the Beraisa however, which continues 'u've'Mazon Sh'tei Se'udos le'Eruv, u'ch'Beitzah Letamei Tum'as Ochlin' - we see that whatever is Metamei Tum'as Ochlin' is also considered a food as regards making an Eruv. Consequently, apples, which are regarded as a food with regard to the former, should also be regarded a food with regard to the latter.

(d) The quantity of apples required for an Eruv - is a Kav (twenty-four egg-volumes).

(a) The Shiurim of Spices, vegetables and fruit given by the Beraisa - concern Ma'aser Ani, and the Gemara adds 've'Chen le'Eruv'.

(b) The Shiur of (wild) apples is not equivalent to that of peaches - because whereas the latter are Chashuv, the former are not.

(c) Wheat and barley are not eligible to be used for an Eruv.

(d) Rav Yosef was upset with Rav Menasheh bar Seguvli for quoting Rav's statement on the *Beraisa* - because Rav also said 'Me'arvin bi'Shtei Revi'i'os shel Yayin', which is the equivalent to the Shiur given by the *Mishnah* (a clear indication that Rav was referring to the Mishnah, and not to the Beraisa - especially as there is another Shiur for wine, as we shall soon see.

(a) When Rav Yosef stated that, when two foods combine for an Eruv, each must consist of at least enough for one meal Rabah retorted - that even if it is only a half, a third or a quarter (of a meal, it will suffice).

(b) The Beraisa, which gives the Shiur for wine as 'enough to soak one's bread in' - is referring to *boiled* wine; Rav, who gives the Shiur as half a Lug, to wine that has not been boiled.

(c) Some say that the quantity of vinegar that is required, is sufficient to dip two *full meals* of vegetables, others explain that it refers to the amount of vegetables that are normally eaten in the course of two meals.

(a) When, in the first Beraisa, Rebbi Shimon ben Elazar includes onions among the commodities that are eligible to be used for an Eruv - he is referring to the actual onions themselves; whereas in the second Beraisa, when in the name of Rebbi Meir, he disqualifies them, he is referring to the peels, which are not Chashuv because they are not good to eat - even dangerous.

(b) Onion-leaves of onions that have grown to the size of a Zeres (half a Tefach) are not dangerous, nor are they dangerous if one drank beer after eating them - whatever size the onions.

(c) When Rebbi Chanina (ben Dosa - Agados Maharsha) ate half an onion with half its poison - he nearly died. He was saved by his colleagues, who prayed - successfully - for his recovery.




(a) We would have thought that beer will not invalidate a Mikvah - because it is not officially called 'water' (unlike paint-water, which *is*), and it is only drawn *water* that can invalidate a Mikvah, not other liquids.

(b) 'T'rein Revai Shikra' in our Sugya means two Lugin - because a Lug is a quarter of a Kav (so 'two quarters' means two quarter Kabin = two Lugin. The Gemara initially thought this to be the Shiur for beer to make an Eruv, because it is four times the Shiur of wine (half a Lug, as we learnt earlier), in the same way as the Shiur (of Chiyuv) for carrying beer on Shabbos is a Lug - four times the Shiur for carrying wine.

(c) The Gemara reject this contention however - on the grounds that with regard to the Din of carrying on Shabbos, less than one Lug is not Chashuv, whereas by Eruv, people tend to drink a cup of beer in the morning, and one in the evening, so that two cups (each the size of a Revi'is ha'Lug = one and a half egg-volumes), will be the required Shiur for an Eruv.

(a) 'Achal Gerogeros ve'Shilam Temarim, Tavo Alav Berachah' - means that if a Yisrael inadvertently ate a measure of dried figs, and paid back *the same measure* of dates, he will receive a Divine blessing for paying back something that is more valuable than what he ate. It cannot mean that he paid back *the equivalent value* in dates, Rav Yosef explains, because if so, why would he deserve a Divine blessing (since the values are the same)?

(b) This proves, Rav Yosef concludes, that dates are more valuable than dried figs -Consequently, having learnt above that the Shiur for dried figs is a Kav, it goes without saying that one Kav of dates will suffice, and that more than that is not necessary.

(c) Abaye refutes Rav Yosef's proof - it may well be, he explains, that dried figs are more valuable than dates; In fact, he continues, the Beraisa is referring to paying back *the equivalent value* in dates (the very interpretation which Rav Yosef rejected). Why would he deserve a Divine blessing, Rav Yosef asked? Because he ate something which does not sell so well, and paid the Kohen with something which is more marketable.

(d) The Shiur Eruv of Shesisa - is the quantity that can be made from two spoonfuls of kernels.

(a) According to Abaye's nurse - Shesisa was good for the heart and dispelled worry.

(b) She also taught Abaye to eat the meat of the right thigh of a ram roasted in either cow's dung or coals from chips of a willow-tree - as an antidote to a weak heart.

(c) She recommended diluted wine afterwards.

(a) If one uses a condiment as an Eruv - then one requires only the quantity that was commonly used in that capacity in the course of two meals; whereas if regular food is being used, the full quantity of food that is eaten will be required.

(b) According to Rabah, raw meat is not eaten as a condiment, and therefore requires the amount that one normally eats on its own for two meals - whereas only the quantity of roasted meat that is normally eaten together with bread is required, since that is the way it is normally eaten.

(c) According to Rav Yosef, even roasted meat is measured independently, and not as a condiment.

(a) Abaye rejects Rav Yosef's proof (from the Persians, who used to eat pieces of roasted meat independently) - because, he argues, since when are the Persians the majority of the world? And he proves his point from a poor man's clothes, as we shall now see.

(b) A poor man's clothes are Tamei Medras if they are the size of three finger-breadths by three finger-breadths - despite the fact that this is not the Shiur of a garment for a rich man. From here we see that we do not contend with minorities for Shiurim, but rather follow the majority (in this case, the poor).

(c) The Gemara refutes the attempted answer that we go Lechumra in both cases - by citing the opinion of Rebbi Shimon ben Elazar in another Beraisa - where he gives the Shiur Eruv for an ordinary person as that of a sick or an elderly person (who is unable to eat as much), and the Shiur for a person with a hearty appetite, as that of an ordinary person - both leniencies.

(d) No! The Gemara has no answer to Abaye's Kashya on Rav Yosef.

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