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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Eruvin 28

ERUVIN 26-29 has been sponsored by Rabbi and Mrs. Eli Turkel of Ra'anana, Israel



(a) A Sheretz is a small creature that, due to uts closeness to the ground, is not noticed until it begins to crawl on the ground.

(b) There are three kinds of Sheretz: an earth-Sheretz, a water-Sheretz and a flying-Sheretz.

(a) Birds were created from mud, a mixture of earth and water; they are called 'Gidulei Karka' because they feed from the produce of the earth.


1. The first Beraisa explains that we begin with the 'P'rat u'Ch'lal' (to say that we include everything with the K'lal, to permit everything in what may be purchased with Ma'aser Sheni money); the *first* K'lal then comes to indicate that we limit the last K'lal to include things that are similar to the K'lal in at least *two points* out of the three that the P'rat incorporates ('P'ri mi'Pri' and 'Gidulei Karka') i.e. birds (which are not V'lad V'lados ha'Aretz - since they were created from mud). Consequently, fish, which are not Gidulei Karka either, (and similar to the P'rat in only *two* point) are precluded.
2. The second Beraisa explains that we start with the 'K'lal u'F'rat', meaning that we begin by excluding everything not included in the P'rat. However, the last K'lal indicates that we should include at least those things that are similar to it in all three points, to preclude even birds - and certainly fish.
(a) The Gemara may also permit the use of coriander for the Eruv even of someone who does *not* have children - However, using it is permitted, since it is fit for someone who *does*. Alternatively, Rav (who permits it) is referring to Median coriander, which is healthy, and therefore does not have the harmful effects that other coriander has.

(b) Initially, we thought that Rav changed his mind when he arrived in Bavel, and saw how the Babylonians ate young crops.

(a) People would normally sow beans, barley and fenugreek for their seed, not for their herbage - Consequently, even if someone *did* sow them for their herbage, they will still be Patur from Ma'aser, because 'Batlah Da'ato Etzel Kol ha'Adam'.

(b) Cress and the rocket-plant were Chayav either way - because people tended to sow them for the herbage as well as for the seeds.

(c) The Gemara concludes that Rav Yehudah Amar Rav, who permitted young crops to be used for an Eruv - was speaking about garden crops, as opposed to field crops, which Rav forbade above.




(a) Rebbi Zeira maintained that the Berachah over hops should be 'Shehakol' - because, in his opinion, they grow from the air (like mushrooms).

(b) This however, is not correct. In fact, they grow from the ground. The proof for this is, that when one kills the bushes on which the hops grow, the hops die too.

(c) The reason that one recites a Shehakol over young crops - is because that is the Berachah that one recites over something that is not yet ripe.

(a) Kafni'os-dates - may be bought with Ma'aser Sheni money, and are Metamei Tum'as Ochlin.

(b) Rebbi Yehudah holds that, as far as Tum'as Ochlin goes, Kafni'os-dates are considered fruit in all regards.

(c) Nischani - are small 'male'-dates which have reached their full growth. Rav is speaking about small 'female'-dates, which have yet to grow to their full size, and which can therefore not be used for an Eruv.

(d) If the Beraisa is speaking about 'Nischani', why does Rebbi Yehudah exempt them from Ma'asros.

(a) The Tana Kama renders even 'female'-dates fit to be Metamei Tum'as Ochlin - because, although they are currently bitter, and cannot really be termed a food, it is nevertheless possible to remedy this by sweetening them on the fire.

(b) Food that is used for an Eruv, must be fit to use as it is, without any further preparation.

(c) The reason that they are Patur from Ma'aser - is because they are not fully-grown (which is not affected by the fact that the they can be treated).

(a) The Tana Kama of the Beraisa holds that bitter almonds are Chayav Ma'aser when they are small - when they are considered a complete fruit, since, when they are fully-grown, they have become bitter, and are no longer edible.

(b) Sweet almonds are Chayav Ma'aser only when they are fully-grown, when the fruit is considered complete, but prior to that, not.

(c) According to the Halachah, all bitter almonds are Patur from Ma'aser - even when they are small, since they are not fully-grown, and are not therefore, considered a fruit.

(d) One Tana obligates taking Ma'aser even from fully-grown bitter-almonds - because they can be sweetened on the fire - as we learned above, with regard to Tum'as Ochlin.

(a) If the Tana Kama's reason for considering Kor to be subject to Tum'as Ochlin, is because it was cooked and treated - then why would Rebbi Yehudah argue with this? Have we not learnt a Beraisa which considers skin which was cooked, subject to Tum'as Ochlin (and Rebbi Yehudah does not dispute that ) - how much more so Kor, which is initially considered a food?

(b) The Machlokes between Rebbi Yehudah and the Tana Kama, the Gemara concludes - is with regard to the Berachah. The Tana Kama holds that, since the Kor is now soft, it is a fruit and one recites the Berachah 'Borei P'ri ha'Etz'; whereas, according to Rebbi Yehudah, since it stands to become hard, it is not considered a fruit, in which the Berachah is 'Shehakol'.

(c) Shmuel proves Rav correct, from a radish - which stands to become hard, yet one recites over it 'Borei P'ri ha'Adamah'.

(d) The Gemara reject this proof however - because one cannot compare Kor, which is not planted for its edible qualities, to a radish, which *is* (in fact, the Gemara rules like Shmuel).

(a) A handful of hops - is the amount needed for an Eruv.

(b) The quantity of young crops that are needed for an Eruv - is a farmer's bunch.

(c) All commodities used for an Eruv - must be the amount that is usually used for two meals.

(a) The Gemara understood 'Kalya' to mean a hard stalk of grass - Consequently, it could not understand how Rav Chilkiya bar Tuvi could permit such a thing to be used for an Eruv.

(b) 'Yarka de'Kalya' - is a kind of vegetable (see Rabeinu Chananel). One handful is required for an Eruv.

(c) The same Shiur of a handful is required for wet-beans.

(d) Raw beets are fine for an Eruv - it is half-cooked beets, the Gemara concludes, that killed a man.

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