ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous dafEruvin 22
ERUVIN 21, 22, 23, & 25 sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor. Kollel Iyun Hadaf is indebted to him for his encouragement and support and prays that Hashem will repay him in kind.
(a) When Rav Ada bar Masna's wife asked what their children would eat when
he went to Yeshivah to learn Torah - he replied that there were plenty of
wild vegetables available. Alternatively, that there were moist canes which,
if cut when they were soft, could be ground and made into bread.
(b) "u'Meshalem le'Son'av *el Panav* le'Ha'avido" is extraordinary -
inasmuch as it suggests that the Resha'im are a burden that Hashem carries
and wants to get rid of (See Agados Maharsha).
(c) "Hayom La'asosam" - Chazal expound - 'today (in *this* world) is the
time to perform Mitzvos, and not tomorrow (in *the World to Come*)', where
there will be no more opportunity to do so; and also 'today to perform them,
and tomorrow to receive the reward (because there is no basic remuneration
for Mitzvos in *this* world).
(d) "Erech Apayim" - (in the plural) means that Hashem is slow to smile at
the Tzadikim (who receive the reward for their good deeds only in the World
to Come), and slow to become angry with the Resha'im (who receive their
punishment only in the World to Come); both of His 'faces' (Kevayachol) are
slow to materialise.
(a) The Gemara's Sha'aleh is whether the Beis Sasayim (up to which Rebbi
Yehudah permits the Pasei Bira'os) includes the two Amos of the Pasin
(because if it would not, the person would not learn from his Beis Sasayim
plus two Amos to carry in an area of more than a Beis Sasayim which is not
Hukaf le'Dirah), or whether it is exclusive of the Pasin (because he will
only compares other areas to the actual pit area, ignoring the Pasin - in
which case, he will *not* come to carry in a space of more than a Beis
(b) Rebbi Shimon ben Elazar permits a pit of a Beis Sasayim, and does not
include the Pasin - suggesting that Rebbi Yehudah, who appears as a third
opinion in this Beraisa, requires the pit, including the Pasin, to be no
more than a Beis Sasayim (otherwise, in which point does he argue with Rebbi
Shimon ben Elazar)?
(c) The Gemara however, refutes this proof - perhaps Rebbi Yehudah agrees
that the Beis Sasayim does *not* include the Pasin, and their dispute
concerns *the shape* of the Beis Sasayim; according to Rebbi Yehudah, it
does not need to be square (and is Kasher even if it fifty Amos by a hundred
- like the Chatzer of the Mishkan); whereas according to Rebbi Shimon ben
Elazar, the Beis Sasayim is Kasher only if it square.
(d) Rebbi Shimon ben Elazar draws a distinction between a pen, a wood-store
etc., whose air is designated for use as part of a dwelling - and in which
it is therefore permitted to carry even if it is five or ten Kurin (far in
excess of a Beis Sa'ah), and the guarding-huts in the fields, which are used
to serve the field (instead of vice-versa), and which will therefore not
permit carrying in an area of more than a Beis Sasayim.
(a) Since Rebbi Yochanan and Rebbi Elazar both stressed the power of
Mechitzos that emerges Chachamim of our Mishnah, who permit Pasei
Bira'os even if the street passes straight through it - it appears that this
is their opinion. Then how can Rebbi Yochanan say elsewhere, that if the
doors of Yerushalayim were not closed at night-time, it would be considered
a Reshus ha'Rabim (in spite of the wall that surrounded it), and one would
be Chayav for carrying four Amos in it?
(b) The Gemara resolves this apparent contradiction - by explaining that,
although Rebbi Yochanan stressed the power of Mechitzos (like the Chachamim)
in fact, he follows the opinion of Rebbi Yehudah, who rules that when the
public pass in between the Pasei Bira'os, they negate the Mechitzos, and it
remains a Reshus ha'Rabim.
(c) In our Mishnah, which speaks about the Pasei Bira'os, the Mechitzos are
not *real* ones, but Halachic ones - and it is *there* that Rebbi Yehudah
holds that the public negate them; whereas, in the Beraisa, which speaks
about two proper Mechitzos at the side of the street, Rebbi Yehudah will
agree that the public cannot negate them. The Rabbanan, on the other hand,
hold that the public cannot negate the Mechitzos of Pasei Bira'os - because
at least there are *four* walls (albeit Halachic ones); whereas in the
Beraisa, where there are only *two*, the public passing through will negate
(a) Rebbi Yochanan ruled that one is not Chayav for carrying in Eretz
Yisrael - because of the steep mountain range in the north (Sulma de'Tzur),
and the wadi (Machsana de'Geder) in the south. - Presumably, the Gemara
takes for granted the Mediterranean Sea in the west, and the two Seas and
the Jordan River in the east.
(b) In that case, queries the Gemara - why may one not carry in Bavel too,
which is also surrounded by the rivers P'ras and Diglas?
(c) And if it comes to that, carrying anywhere in the world should be
permitted, since all of the land is surrounded by the oceans?
(d) The slopes of Eretz Yisrael are not considered a Reshus ha'Rabim - since
they are not similar to the camp of Yisrael in the desert, which was flat.
(a) Rachbah maintains that, according to the Rabbanan, a mound of earth
which rises ten Tefachim within the space of four Amos, and which the public
use, will be considered a Reshus ha'Yachid - due to a Kal va'Chomer: if, in
their opinion, the public cannot negate four walls when it is *easy* for
them to pass through (as it is in our Mishnah), then how much more so will
that be the case, when it is only with *difficulty* that they can use it -
like it is here.
(b) The Sha'aleh, according to Rebbi Yehudah - is whether his ruling (that
the public negate the Mechitzos) is confined to our Mishnah (where it is
easy for the public to pass through), but will not apply in our case (where
the mound rises four Amos in the space of ten Tefachim), since it is only
with difficulty that they are able to use it; or whether it will apply
(c) Rava answers like the second side of the Sha'aleh (that,according to
Rebbi Yehudah, even in the case of a mound that rises ten Tefachim within
the space of four Amos - the public will negate the Mechitzos and it has the
Din of a Reshus ha'Rabim); and even if, due to the steep angle of the
incline, the ascent requires ropes to hold on to.
(d) This applies even to the slopes of Beis Meron - which were so narrow,
that it was impossible for two people to climb them side by side.
(a) If the public cannot negate the Mechitzos of Pasei Bira'os, even though
it is easy for them to pass through, then how much more so will they not
negate the Mechitzos of a Chatzer, to which one has access only via narrow
gates or a breach in the walls (making it relatively difficult to pass
through) - Consequently, the author of the Beraisa, which needs to state
that such a Chatzer is a Reshus ha'Yachid regarding Shabbos, would appear to
be Rebbi Yehudah, contradicting Rava's ruling in 5c.
(b) The Gemara answers - that really the author of the Beraisa is the
Rabbanan, and the Chidush lies not in the fact that the Chatzer is a Reshus
ha'Yachid for Shabbos, but that it is a Reshus ha'Rabim for Tum'ah.
(a) If a gradient is so steep that one's slave is unable to run up it
carrying a Sa'ah of wheat in front of an officer - then it has the Din of a
Reshus ha'Yachid; if he can, it has the Din of a Reshus ha'Rabim.
(b) Rava certainly holds that the public negate the Mechitzos, even by a
steep slope. However, that applies to anywhere else in the world, but not to
Eretz Yisrael (like Rebbi Yochanan): in Eretz Yisrael, when Yehoshua (who
loved his people), distributed the land, he did it in such a way that all
the easily negotiable areas he gave to the public, whilst those pieces that
were uncomfortable for them to use, he distributed to individuals.
Consequently, the steep inclines in Eretz Yisrael (such as the paths of Beis
Gilgul, of which the Beraisa is speaking), are considered a Reshus
(a) Rebbi Akiva is concerned that by a private water-*pit*, maybe the water
will dry up, and, because there is no-one to remind him (unlike by a public
pit, where the public will remind each other), the owner will forget, and
carry his bucket there.
(b) A *well* is less likely to dry up, so Rebbi Akiva does not differentiate
between a public well and a private one.
(c) Rebbi Yehudah ben Bava - restricts the Heter of Pasei Bira'os to a
public well only - not to a private one, and nor to any sort of pit.
(d) Any area not permitted by Pasei Bira'os - requires regular Mechitzos.