(Permission is granted to print and redistribute this material
as long as this header and the footer at the end are included.)


prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

Previous daf

Eruvin 18

ERUVIN 16-20 sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor. Kollel Iyun Hadaf is indebted to him for his encouragement and support and prays that Hashem will repay him in kind. from



(a) One cannot use the same system of Pasin by a caravan as by a water-well - because, due to the fact that the Parutz is more than the Omed, the system of Pasin is faulty (at least mi'de'Rabbanan); therefore the Chachamim restricted the concession of Pasei Bira'os to the animals of the Olei Regalim (as we learnt on 20b).

(b) Chananyah forbids Pasei Bira'os even for the animals of the Olei Regalim, by a pit of water - because he is worried that the pit of water may dry up and one will carry the bucket in vain.

(c) Chananya confines this prohibition to pits of artificial water, which dry up quickly, but not to water-wells, which tend to last longer, and that is what our Mishnah is talking about (according to the first Lashon).

(d) In the second Lashon, we initially inferred from Chananya's words that he does not differentiate between a Be'er and a Bor (but forbids both) - This inference is not correct, the Gemara point out. In fact, Chananya confines his restriction to Boros, as we learnt in the first Lashon; Nevertheless, he did not mention in his words that Bei'ros are permitted, because he only referred to the Boros of the Tana Kama (he was not concerned with cases not mentioned by the Tana Kama).

(a) The author of our Mishnah could well be Rebbi Akiva, the Gemara explains. Nevertheless, the Tana only mentions wells, and not water-pits - because wells are always permitted, whether they are public ones or private ones; he did not want to mention pits, which are sometimes permitted and sometimes forbidden (i.e. private ones).

(b) We initially explained 'Bira'os' (in the plural) - to mean both public and private wells.

(c) In that case, the author of our Mishnah could not be Rebbi Yehudah ben Bava - who forbids Pasei Bira'os by private wells.

(d) The Gemara concludes however, that 'Bira'os' refers to wells in general (but to public ones exclusively - according to Rebbi Yehudah ben Bava).

(a) 'Shitin' are inferior quality figs.

(b) They are Patur from Demai - because, on account of their low value, even the Amei-ha'Aretz were bound to Ma'aser them.

(c) Deyuftera is the acronym of 'Deyu Peiros', meaning two fruits, because the tree (a kind of Shitin-fig) would produce two harvests a year.
Presumably, that is what makes it Chashuv, which explains why the Amei- ha'Aretz tended not to take Ma'asros from it, which in turn, explains why it is Chayav Demai.

(a) 'Tzela' really means 'side' - and it means (that Hashem first created woman in the form of) either a second face or a tail.

(b) If Tzela means a tail - then we will explain "Achor va'Kedem Tzartani" to mean 'last to be created, but first to be punished'.

(c) After they sinned by eating the forbidden fruit - it was the snake who received his punishment first.

(d) 'Kodem le'Pur'anus' - refers to the generation of the flood, where the Torah records that the people perished before the animals.

(a) If Tzeila means a tail - then the double 'Yud' in the word "*va'Yitzer* Hashem Elokim es ha'Adam" - means 'Oy Li mi'Yitzri, Oy Li mi'Yotzri' - meaning woe to me from my Yetzer ha'Ra (who gives me no peace when I follow the instructions of My Creator), and woe to me from my Creator (who takes me to task when I follow the whims of my Yetzer ha'Ra).

(b) "Zachar u'Nekeivah Bera'am" - means that Hashem initially *intended* to create them as two separate entities (which eventually he did - Sof ma'aseh be'Machashavah Techilah), but not that he actually created them like that.




(a) We learn from "va'Yevi'eha el ha'Adam" - that Hashem actually took on the role of Adam's Shushbin (best 'man'), and that a more prominent person should not hesitate to be Shushbin for a Chasan who is less prominent than himself.

(b) It must have been the male face that went in front, and not the female one - says the Gemara, in order not to contravene the ruling of the Beraisa, which forbids a man to walk behind a woman (even if it is his own wife - because it is degrading - In front of another woman perhaps, it is also immoral).

(c) Chazal say that a man who follows a woman across a river (when she is forced to uncover her legs) - receives no portion in the World to Come (It is unclear why Rashi writes here, like he does in Berachos, that we are speaking about a married woman.

(d) "Yad le'Yad Lo Yinakeh" - is written in connection with a man who counts out money into a woman's hand, in order to look at her.

(a) "va'Yakam va'Yelech Achareha" (written in connection with Elisha, who was following the woman whose baby had died) - does not mean that he literally walked behind her, but that he followed her advice (i.e. he took his cue from her regarding what he should do next).

(b) We initially understood "va'Yelech Mano'ach Acharei Ishto" literally - to mean that Mano'ach physically followed his wife, which would prove that he was an Am ha'Aretz, unaware of the Halachah that we quoted above in 6b).

(c) We learn from Eliezer by whom the Torah writes "Vatakam Rivkah ... Vatelachnah Acharei ha'Ish" - that it is always the woman who should walk behind the man (in spite of the fact that Eliezer was charged with looking after Rifkah).

(d) Chazal say that one should rather walk behind a lion than a woman, a woman than a place of idol-worship and a place of idol-worship rather than walk behind a Shul whilst Davening is in progress.

(a) We learn from the Pasuk "Vayechi Adam Sheloshim u'Me'as Shanah, Vayoled bi'Demuso ke'Tzalmo" - that up until then (during which time he was in Cherem), Adam gave birth to children that were not in his image - namely, spirits and demons.

(b) During the hundred and thirty years following his sin - the Gemara quotes Adam as having done Teshuvah by fasting , separating from his wife and wearing a fig-leaf belt - perhaps the same ones that they had made immediately following the sin (and which were presumably superficially made, certainly not as nice as the skin garment that Hashem made them, which would render this an act of humility, a fitting atonement for the pride that caused them to follow their own whims over and above the command of Hashem).

(c) In fact, Adam's Teshuvah was complete - and the spirits to which he gave birth were not conceived due to a deliberate act on his part, but to seed that was emitted inadvertently. (According to the Medrash, the demons were conceived due to the actions of female demons, who would take advantage of his ostracization by forcing themselves on him.)

(d) The Pasuk which refers to No'ach as a Tzadik - speaks in No'ach's presence, whereas that which refers to him as a Tzadik Tamim, speaks not in his presence. We learn from here that one should avoid relating a person's full praise in his presence (presumably because so much praise is likely to go to his head, resulting in vanity and complacency).

(a) Rebbi Yirmiyah ben Elazar learns Pasuk "ve'Hineh Aleh Zayis Taraf *be'Fihah* - that the dove was hinting to No'ach (by bringing him a bitter olive-leaf) that he would rather rely on Hashem for his food, however bitter it is, than have to come on to a human-being, for the finest dishes.

(b) 'Taraf' really means - food, as the Pasuk writes in Tehilim "Hatrifeni Lechem Chuki".

(c) Rebbi Yirmiyah ben Elazar learns Pasuk "ve'Lo Amar, Ayeh Eloka Osai, Nosen *Zemiros ba'Laylah*" - that in a house where Torah (Zemiros) is studied by night, they will not need to ask 'where is the G-d that formed me' (i.e. it will not be destroyed).

(d) And he learns Pasuk "Kol ha'Neshamah Tehalel Kah Helelu-Kah" - that nowadays, when there is no Beis Hamikdash, and the Kohanim no longer Duchen (using the full Name of Hashem - as they used to do in the Beis Hamikdash), it is enough if we use the two-letter Name of Hashem - 'Kah', a Name which is fit for 'all souls' to use.

(a) When Bavel is cursed - so are all her neighbors cursed with her; but when Shomron (the capitol of the ten tribes) is cursed, all her neighbors are blessed.

(b) The reason for the former is because of the principle 'Woe to the wicked one, and woe to his neighbor'! Whereas with rregard to the latter, it is a praiseworthy thing for Shomron to be mentioned for the good, when others are blessed on account of her.

(c) The one who interprets Tzela to mean a face - will explain "va'Yisgor Basar Tachtena" to mean that Hashem then built a body below the face to create Chavah; whereas the one who interprets it to mean a tail - explains that He covered the location of the cut with flesh.

(d) If Hashem created Chavah from a face - then "va'Yiven" either means that He platted her hair (one of the connotations of Beniyah) before bringing her to Adam, or that He built her body in such a way that the lower part (the hips, in between which the fetus lives until it is born), should be wider than the upper part - for strength (like the original shape of a storehouse, which was not damaged by the pressure of the store of wheat, which it would have, been had it been square).

Next daf


For further information on
subscriptions, archives and sponsorships,
contact Kollel Iyun Hadaf,