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Eruvin 104


OPINIONS: It is forbidden, according to the Mishnah, to wrap a reed around a bruised finger on Shabbos unless it is wrapped for the purpose of performing Avodah in the Mikdash. It is forbidden to wrap the reed around the bruise to cause it to bleed (this was apparently a common therapeutic practice in those days) even in the Mikdash. Doing so would involve a Melachah d'Oraisa, which is not permitted even for the sake of the Temple service (see Rashi on the Mishnah, DH Kan v'Kan).

Is it permitted to wrap a band-aid or other protective covering around a bruise on Shabbos, or may this be equated with wrapping a reed, which is forbidden?

(a) The TOSFOS HA'ROSH at first notes that from our Mishnah it would appear that wrapping anything around a bruise is forbidden. The reason a reed may not be wrapped around a bruise would appear to be in order to prevent a person from wrapping the reed tightly, in a manner that will cause it to bleed, which is forbidden mid'Oraisa as the Mishnah states. According to this interpretation of the Mishnah, our Mishnah would correspond to the rest of the Mishnayos in this Perek, which prohibit a particular act in order to insure that another act, which is mentioned at the end of the Mishnah, will not be done on Shabbos.

However, it will certainly be permitted to wrap a soft, wide, piece of material around a bruise. Such a fabric certainly cannot be used to cause the bruise to bleed, and therefore there is no reason to prohibit its use. (HAGAHOS ASHIRI)

(b) The TOSFOS HA'ROSH records, though, that it is common practice is to wrap cloth around a bruise on Shabbos. Therefore, he and TOSFOS (DH Lishma'inan) conclude that the Mishnah does not mean to prohibit wrapping a reed lest one tighten it to remove blood. Rather, wrapping a reed on a bruise is prohibited only because reeds have therapeutic properties, and it is prohibited mid'Rabanan to cause a bruise to heal on Shabbos. Any object which does not have such properties (such as a cloth or band-aid) may be wrapped on a bruise on Shabbos. This appears to be Rashi's opinion (103b DH Korech) and the ruling of the TUR and REMA (OC 328:24) as well.

OPINIONS: In our Gemara, Ula proposes that one may not intentionally make any kind of loud noise on Shabbos. What is the Halachah -- is it permitted to make non-melodious noise on Shabbos or not?
(a) TOSFOS cites the RIF and REBBI YEHUDAH BAR BARZILAI (Sefer ha'Itim), who rule that it is permitted to make non-musical noise on Shabbos. Although Ula prohibited making noise, Ameimar, who permitted the people of Mechuza to uses a well with a pulley (although it evidently was a noisy affair), apparently argues with Ula and permits noise-making. His is the Halachic opinion.

(b) RABEINU CHANANEL, however, rules like Ula, that it is prohibited to cause noise on Shabbos, even if the noise is not musical. The MAHARAM (in a responsum cited in Hagahos Ashiri) proposes that even according to Rabeinu Chananel, it is only prohibited to do something noisy if one is interested in the noise that is produced (for instance, knocking on a door in order that those inside should hear you). If the noise is just a by- product (such as noise emanating from a loose piece of metal jewelry), it is permitted. (SEFAS EMES suggests the same dichotomy on his own.)

Although Ula prohibits using a noisy pulley to draw water from a well, apparently there was some sort of benefit gained from the squeak of the pulley. Alternatively, the use of a squeaky pulley produces an especially loud noise, which is heard by many and it is therefore prohibited. (Maharam, ibid.)

(a) The SHULCHAN ARUCH (OC 338:1) records the opinion of Tosfos and the Rif, that only music may not be produced on Shabbos, but not noise. This is the common practice today (BI'UR HALACHAH).

(b) However, the VILNA GA'ON argues, contending that the Halachah is like Ula (whose view is supported by the Yerushalmi), and it is *not* permitted to make noise on Shabbos unless the noise is not serving a purpose at all (as the Maharam (b) proposed -- but the Vilna Gaon even permits using a noisy well-pulley, as the Bi'ur Halachah points out).

Even according to the Vilna Gaon it is *permitted* to make noise if done "k'Le'achar Yad," that is, with a Shinuy -- in fact, one may even clap to a *musical* beat with a Shinuy (OC 339:3, Bi'ur Halachah ibid.)

The REMA adds that it is prohibited to use a utensil that was specifically made for the purpose of making noise (such as a door-knocker) according to *both* of the opinions above, since one may be tempted to use the utensil to produce a musical beat, which is prohibited. (The Bi'ur Halachah, though, permits this bi'She'as ha'Dechak -- relying on the ruling of the Rambam in Perush ha'Mishnah.)


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