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Eruvin 102


OPINIONS: The Gemara says that under certain conditions, a "Si'ana" may be worn on Shabbos, while under other conditions, it is prohibited. What is a "Si'ana," and under what conditions is it permitted or prohibited?
(a) RASHI says that a "Si'ana" is a wide-brimmed hat. If it is not worn *tightly* (Mehudak) on the head, there is a fear that the wind might blow it off one's head and one might then carry the hat in Reshus ha'Rabim. ("Mehudak," according to Rashi, means "tight" and is the condition for *permitting* a hat to be worn.)

(b) TOSFOS cites RABEINU CHANANEL who says that a "Si'ana" is a hat or head covering. When the brim is made from a hard material that does *not bend*, it is prohibited to wear it on Shabbos because it is an Ohel. If the brim is soft and pliable, it may be worn on Shabbos. ("Mehudak," according to Rabeinu Chananel, means that it "does not bend" and is the condition for *prohibiting* a hat to be worn.)

(c) The RAMBAM says that a "Si'ana" refers to any Talis or overgarment that a person drapes over his head which protrudes in front of him or to the sides. If it is tightly bound to his head *and* it is stiff and does not bend, it is like an Ohel and may not be worn. (Apparently, "Mehudak," according to the Rambam, means both that it is "tight" and that it "does not bend," and it is the condition for *prohibiting* a hat to be worn - TESHUVOS RADVAZ in Leshonos ha'Rambam.)

HALACHAH: Is it permitted to go out with a hat with a wide, stiff brim? According to Rabeinu Chananel it should be prohibited, and according to Rashi it should be prohibited if it is not worn tightly on one's head.

The MISHNAH BERURAH (OC 301:152) lists a number of reasons to permit wearing a hat on Shabbos.

(a) First, the Magen Avraham says that if the brim of a hat is sloped downward, it is not considered an Ohel and may be worn.
(b) Second, we may rely on Rashi's opinion that it is only prohibited if it is not worn tightly.
(c) Third, the hats that we wear are not worn in order to provide shade.
(d) Finally, if the brim is not stiff, it is certainly permitted.


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