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Eruvin 27

ERUVIN 26-29 have been sponsored by Rabbi and Mrs. Eli Turkel of Ra'anana, Israel


OPINIONS: The Gemara says that even though "Moshav" is Metamei Begadim by merely touching it, "Merkav" is not Metamei Begadim through touching it but only through carrying it.

We know that "Moshav" refers to an object that is used as a seat, which became Tamei when a Zav sat on it. What is "Merkav?"

(a) RASHI (DH Tafus) and in Vayikra (16:9) explains that Merkav refers to the handle at the front of a saddle, which the rider holds as he sits on the saddle. Since he does not actually *sit* on that part of the saddle, it is less Tamei than Moshav. According to Rashi, it is a Gezeiras ha'Kasuv that even though the handle is connected to and part of the saddle, touching the handle does not make one's clothes Tamei unless he carries it. The saddle, though, will make one's clothes Tamei by merely touching it.

(b) TOSFOS (DH Iy d'Yasiv) and other Rishonim explain that the difference between an object which is Merkav and one which is Moshav is determined by the way a person sits on the object. If it is normal to sit on a particular object with one's feet together, it is Tamei Moshav. If the normal way of sitting on it is *only* with his legs spread apart on each side of it, since that it is not a settled way of sitting its Tum'ah is less severe. According to Tosfos, Merkav and Moshav are referring to two completely different objects. The *entire* saddle will be Tamei Merkav if it is not the normal to sit upon it "side-saddle," but it is straddled instead.

According to this explanation, when the Beraisa says that an "Ukaf" is Moshav and the "Tafus" is Merkav, it is not referring to the handle which is part of a saddle. It is referring to two different types of saddles -- one is an "Ukaf" upon which riders frequently sit side-saddle, and the other is a "Tafus," which is a completely different type of saddle upon which people sit only with their legs to each side.

(The RITVA points out that in the original Tosefta which the Gemara is citing, the Tosefta states that "*its* Tafus" (i.e., the Tafus of a saddle) is Merkav. This seems to support Rashi's opinion, that the Tafus is part of the saddle. The RITVA explains that according to Tosfos, the Tosefta is not referring to the handle of a saddle, but to the front part of a saddle which can be detached and used separately. When all parts of the saddle are attached, then it can be Tamei Moshav. If it is used while *detached*, it is Tamei only with Tum'as Merkav.)


OPINIONS: According to some opinions, the Beraisa states that water and salt together may be used for *Pidyon Ma'aser Sheni*. The Gemara concludes that this Beraisa permits redeeming money of Ma'aser Sheni by buying water and salt only when oil is mixed with the water and salt. Although one is also paying for the water and salt with Ma'aser-money, it is permitted because of the principle of "Havla'ah."

Does the opinion that says that Beraisa is referring to using a mixture of water and salt to make an *Eruv* also require that oil be mixed in with the saltwater, or may saltwater alone be used?

(a) TOSFOS (27a, DH Aval) and the RITVA say that oil must be mixed with it in order for saltwater to be used for an Eruv. Nevertheless, it is not necessary to mix in the amount of oil that would be used for two meals, because the saltwater compensates. Saltwater alone, though, may not be used for an Eruv.

(b) However, the RIF, RAMBAM (Hilchos Eruvin 1:8), and the ROSH say that it is not necessary to put oil into the saltwater. Saltwater alone may be used for the Eruv. Since it is something that people eat during the meal by dipping, it suffices for an Eruv. When redeeming the money of Ma'aser, saltwater is not sufficient, because it is not a "Pri" (produce).

According to this explanation, when the Gemara says that the opinion which says that saltwater may be used for Eruv would maintain that it may not be used for Ma'aser, while the opinion that says that saltwater may be used for Ma'aser would agree that it could be used for Eruv -- it is talking about two different types of saltwater. When discussing Eruv, saltwater refers to plain salt and water, with no oil. When discussing Ma'aser, it refers to salt and water *with oil*.

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