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Eruvin 26

ERUVIN 26-29 have been sponsored by Rabbi and Mrs. Eli Turkel of Ra'anana, Israel


SUMMARY: The Reish Galusa had an Avarneka (either a shady tree under which people relax on benches, or a covered area built by aristocrats in the middle of their orchards) in his orchard. He wanted to be able to use it on Shabbos by carrying food to it from his home through the orchard. Rav Huna bar Chinena set up poles in a certain arrangement in the orchard in order to make it usable on Shabbos. Rava removed them.

What exactly happened? How did Rav Huna bar Chinena intend to permit carrying in the orchard by erecting the poles, and what was Rava's objection?

(a) RASHI gives two explanations. In his first explanation, he writes that an Avarneka is not a place of real residential use (Hukaf l'Dirah); people do not live there, they only relax there. Rav Huna bar Chinena placed poles in the ground in the form of an enclosed area in order to represent a little room in which a guard could live (i.e., a Dirah). By doing so, he intended to make the entire orchard "Hukaf l'Dirah," (i.e., its outer wall now included a residential area as well, and not just an orchard) and to permit carrying in the orchard.

Rava pulled out the poles because he felt that the little makeshift room in the orchard does not make the orchard into a place that was Hukaf l'Dirah,. One reason the little room does not help is because it was erected *after* the orchard was fenced in. Second, it is only temporary and not made for living in. Third, it is made primarily for protecting items placed in it, and its main purpose is not for residence.

According to this explanation, Rav Huna bar Chinena made a mistake in the Halachos of Hukaf l'Dirah when he attempted to permit carrying in the orchard by erecting the poles.

(b) In his second explanation, RASHI explains that the Avarneka was indeed a place for living in to some extent, since people stay within it for extended periods of time. It is a room of some sort (and not just a shady tree over a bench as in Rashi's first explanation). Rav Huna bar Chinena held that since the Avarneka was built after the orchard was enclosed, the Avarneka does not make the entire orchard to be considered Hukaf l'Dirah. Therefore, he erected poles in the arrangement of a *path from the house to the Avarneka*, thus creating an fenced off area smaller than Beis Se'asayim, in which it is permitted to carry.

Rava held that the presence of the Avarneka enclosure makes the *entire area* that lies before it (i.e. the orchard) considered Hukaf l'Dirah, and therefore the poles were unnecessary. The Gemara relates that the next day, Amora'im (including those who had originally been on his side) proved to Rava that even though the Avarneka was built for residential purposes, it cannot make the entire orchard Hukaf l'Dirah since it was built *after* the orchard was completed.

(It is not clear why Rava did not reason like that by himself. Apparently, he reasoned that since the orchard was subordinate to the Avarneka, it should be drawn after it. The walls of the *Avarneka* were certainly built after the *Avarneka* was set aside for Dirah, and thus it itself was Hukaf l'Dirah. Even though the walls of the orchard itself were there before the Avarneka, Rava thought the entire orchard was secondary to the Avarneka, therefore it could not be compared to the usual case of "Hukaf u'l'va'Sof Yashav.")

The Gemara concludes that the outer Mechitzos themselves must be erected for the sake of residential purposes in order for the area to be considered Hukaf l'Dirah.

(c) RABEINU NESANEL (cited by Tosfos, the Ritva and others) also explains that Rava made a mistake and Rav Huna bar Chinena was correct. Rav Huna bar Chinena erected a row of poles *along the entire length of one wall of the orchard*, effectively re-enclosing the orchard *after* the Avarneka was erected. He thereby made the *entire orchard* into an area that is Hukaf l'Dirah in which it is permitted to carry.

(Why did Rava think that it was enough to rely on the Avarneka? Tosfos explains Rava's reasoning as follows. Rava maintained that the only time that "Hukaf u'l'va'Sof Yashav" does not help to make an area Hukaf l'Dirah is when a *wall broke down*, allowing passage between the house and the orchard. Since both the house and the orchard were there before, the breaching of the wall does not make the orchard Hukaf l'Dirah. However, in the case of the Avarneka, an entirely *new house* (the Avarneka) was built after the wall of the orchard was erected. Building a new house, Rava thought, can make the area considered Hukaf l'Dirah, even if it comes after the wall.)


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