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Eruvin 23

ERUVIN 23 - sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor. Kollel Iyun Hadaf is indebted to him for his encouragement and support and prays that Hashem will repay him in kind.


OPINIONS: The Gemara explains that both Rebbi Eliezer and Rebbi Yosi in the Mishnah (23a) agree that it is permissible to carry within a Karpaf that was not Hukaf l'Dirah (fenced in for residential purposes) as long as its length is twice the size of its width. If the length is *more* than twice the size of its width, it is prohibited to carry there. The Gemara asks what are they arguing about and answers that they are arguing with regard to "Rivu'a d'Riv'uhah Rabanan" -- "the squaring which Rabanan squared it." What does that mean?
(a) RASHI explains that according to Rebbi Eliezer, the real Karpaf is the one which is twice as long as it is wide, just like the dimensions of the Chatzer of the Mishkan. However, if it is square, then b'Di'eved it is also permitted to carry in such a Karpaf. Rebbi Yosi maintains that the real Karpaf in which the Torah permits carrying is one that is square. If its length is greater than its width, then b'Di'eved it is permitted to carry there as long as its length is not more than twice the width. That is, tRebbi Eliezer and Rebbi Yosi argue over which Karpaf is the "prime" Karpaf, in which carrying is permitted l'Chatchilah, and in which it is permitted only b'Di'eved.

What is meant my "carrying b'Di'eved?" It does not appear to mean that we advise the person not to carry except under extenuating circumstances, since Rashi does not say "b'She'as ha'Dechak." If so, both opinions permit carrying; where do they differ?

Apparently, they argue in a case where someone is making a fence around his Karpaf in order to permit carrying in it on Shabbos. The argument is what is the best way to fence in the Karpaf l'Chatchilah.

(b) TOSFOS (DH Ika Beinaihu) and the RIF disagree with Rashi's explanation, because it is unlikely that the argument concerns someone who wants to fence in a Karpaf specifically for carrying on Shabbos. Tosfos explains that the argument between Rebbi Eliezer and Rebbi Yosi is the same argument that we find later (49b) between Rebbi Chanina ben Antignos and the Rabanan. Rebbi Chanina ben Antignos maintains that the 2000-Amah Techum of Shabbos is measured from the point at which one is located when Shabbos begins, to 2000 Amos in *every direction* around him, so that his Techum forms a circle around him. The Rabanan maintain that the 2000-Amah Techum is a square around him, so that he may actually walk more than 2000 Amos in the direction of the diagonal of the square.

In our Mishnah, Rebbi Eliezer maintains that a Karpaf may only be twice as long *in its diagonal* as it is wide, like Rebbi Chanina ben Antignos (consequently, the length of the Karpaf must be somewhat *less* than twice the width). Rebbi Yosi maintains that the diagonal may be longer, as long as the *side* of the rectangular area is not more than twice the width, like the Rabanan.

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