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Eruvin 87

ERUVIN 87 - has been dedicated by Rabbi Dr. Eli Turkel of Ra'anana, Israel, to the memory of his father, Yisrael Shimon ben Shlomo ha'Levi Turkel.

1) [line 1] ARBA'AH AL ARBA'AH - 4 Tefachim by 4 Tefachim
2) [line 3] GUD ACHIS MECHITZASA - (lit. stretch and pull the Mechitzah down) Gud Achis is a Halachic device by which Mechitzos that are ten Tefachim tall are considered to extend downward to the ground or water.

3) [line 3] KUF V'GUD - turn that which is level downward and then stretch it down
4) [line 5] YAMAH SHEL TEVERYA - the Kineret, Sea of Galilee
5) [line 5] OGENIM - banks
6) [line 5] KARPIFOS - enclosed areas that are located outside of a settlement, used for storage and other such purposes. Since it is fully enclosed, a Karpaf is a Reshus ha'Yachid even though it was not enclosed for residential purposes.

7) [line 12] D'AVIDA KI ASISA - its shape is similar to an upside down mortar (O.F. mortier), i.e. it is supported on posts and not located within three Tefachim of any wall

8) [line 12] AMAS HA'MAYIM - a channel of water which is ten Tefachim deep and four Tefachim wide

9) [line 15] AVEIL - the name of a place
10) [line 26] AGAPEHA - its banks
11) [line 26] U'L'HACHALIF - we are dealing with a case where a person transfers a bucket from his house (a Reshus ha'Yachid) to the channel of water (a Karmelis), draws water, and transfers the bucket back again, resting it in each direction on the banks of the channel (which are a Makom Petur, since they are less than three Tefachim wide)


12) [line 18] V'SEHEVEI KI CHOREI KARMELIS - let the channel have the status of a "hole" or protrusion of a Karmelis; i.e. just as a space that is adjacent to Reshus ha'Rabim (such as a hole in a wall that is next to Reshus ha'Rabim) has the status of Reshus ha'Rabim, so too the channel which flows into the city from a point where it has the dimensions of a Karmelis should have the status of a Karmelis

13) [line 22] MUFLEGES - the part of the channel with which we are dealing is located at a distance from the point where it has the dimensions of a Karmelis. The Chachamim did not decree that it has the Din of a Karmelis in this case

14) [line 23] D'AVAD LAH NIFKEI A'PUMAH - the person made "outlets" for it at its entrance and exit; i.e. he placed two boards across the channel and within its banks, with a gap in between them. The Chachamim and Raban Shimon Ben Gamliel argue as to the permissible width of the gap

15) [line 39] TOMNIN B'ATZEH - to insert fruit or grain for storage or to ripen into Atzeh, the hard, thick part of the stalk of legume plants. If the Atzeh is wet with dew, unless the person was specifically interested in keeping his fruits moist, the dew does *not* Machshir the fruits to be Mekabel Tum'ah (see below, entry #18)

16) [line 40] MISTAPGIN B'ALONTIS - they may dry themselves with a towel
17) [line 42] PESOLES - the waste part of grain, the stalk that is left in the ground

18) [line 43] KI YUTAN
(a) Foods may become Tamei if they touch a source of Tum'ah only if they were wetted at some point in their history. Making foods wet in a manner that enables them to become Tamei is called "Hechsher." From then on, even after they dry, they can become Tamei. Wetting food with either of seven liquids, water, dew, oil, wine, milk, blood, and honey, can enable the food to become Tamei.
(b) The food can only become Tamei if the owner of the food was *pleased* that his food became wet. This is learned from the verse (Vayikra 11:38) "v'Chi Yutan Mayim Al Zera..." ("If water has been placed on seeds and then the dead body [of a Sheretz] fell upon them, the seeds are Tamei.") The word "Yutan" in the verse is written without a Vav, just like the word "Yiten" -- "he places." However, according to the Mesorah, it is read "Yutan" -- "it was placed." From this we learn that when water or other liquids fall on the food it is considered Hechsher only if their presence is desirable to the owner of the food (i.e. it is as though he himself applied them).

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