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Eruvin 82

ERUVIN 82 - was generously dedicated by an anonymous donor in Los Angeles in honor of his son, Sam, who lives and teaches in Yerushalayim.

1) [line 6] HA'PESULIM - the people who are disqualified to judge or to give testimony
2a) [line 6] HA'MESACHEK B'KUVYA - a person who gambles with dice
b) [line 7] MAFRICHEI YONIM - pigeon racers

3) [line 7] SOCHAREI SHEVI'IS The Torah requires that farmers desist from working the land every seventh year, as described in Vayikra 25:1-7. The fruits that grow during the seventh (Shevi'is) year are holy to the extent that (1) they must be treated as if they have no owner. Anyone may come in to any field and pick the fruit that he intends to eat. (2) The fruits may not be bought and sold in a normal fashion. (3) They must be eaten in the normal way for each fruit, and not wasted or used in an unusual manner.

*4*) [line 13] HA'HI D'REBBI YEHUDAH AMAR REBBI TARFON HI - that is, the Chachamim of the Beraisa are not the Chachamim of the Mishnah. Rather, the Chachamim of the Beraisa is Rebbi Yehudah, in the name of Rebbi Tarfon

5) [line 15] NAZIR
If a person makes a vow to become a Nazir without stipulating a time period, he becomes a Nazir for a period of thirty days. During this period, he is not allowed to: (1) cut his hair; (2) become Tamei by touching or being in the same room as a corpse; or (3) consume any products of the grapevine.

6) [line 15] SHE'EIN NEZIRUS ELA L'HAFLA'AH - the laws of Nezirus only apply to a distinct utterance (where there is no question or doubt)


*7*) [line 20] MENI'ACH ES HE'CHAVIS - (the barrel must have in it enough for two meals for every person in the city; Shulchan Aruch OC 413)

8) [line 29] EIN BEREIRAH
(a) In numerous places in Shas we find arguments among the Tana'im/Amora'im as to whether "Yesh Bereirah" (i.e. Bereirah works) or "Ein Bereirah" (i.e. Bereirah doesn't work). Bereirah means making one's action contingent retroactively on future events. Examples of this are: selling an object on the condition that it rains tomorrow; buying or selling *today* an object that will be selected tomorrow. In our Gemara, a person sets two Eruvei Techumin and stipulates the events that will determine retroactively which Eruv he intends to use on Shabbos.

"Ein Bereirah" means that such a stipulation does not work. An action cannot be contingent on a future event. The Ran (Nedarim 45b) explains the logic of this rule by saying, "It is not proper for something to take effect, when there remains a doubt on *what* it will take effect." (See Insights to Chulin 15:2.) "Yesh Bereirah" means that such a stipulation does work.
(b) When the action is contingent on a *past* event, there is no question that the action works -- even if the people involved in the action are not aware as to whether the past event did or did not take place. Example: If a person makes two Eruvei Techumin before sundown on Erev Shabbos, in two different directions, and stipulates "if my Rebbi is *presently* staying in a village towards the East, I would like the Eastern Eruv to work, if not, I would like the Western Eruv to work." The man making the Eruv may not know where his Rebbi is, but when he finds out, the Eruv will have taken effect on the side that he stipulated ("Kevar Ba Chacham" -- see Chullin 14b).
(c) We find dozens of instances in the Gemara where a person may perform an action "on the condition that..." (b'Tenai). For example, a man may buy/sell an object or divorce his wife on the condition that the other party pays/does whatever the first party specifies. If the condition is not kept *in the future*, the sale/divorce is annulled. This situation is not called Bereirah -- see Insights to Eruvin 36b.
(d) Halachically, most Poskim conclude (based on Beitzah 38a) that regarding biblical questions (mid'Oraisa), we assume that Bereirah does not work (l'Chumrah), but in regards to Rabbinical questions (mid'Rabanan), we rely on Bereirah.

9) [line 37] NIFNEH - defecates
10) [line 38] MEKANCHASO - wipes him


11) [line 3] B'TZAVSA D'IMEI NICHA LEI - he prefers the company of his mother
13) [line 27] D'ASHTIKU - they remained silent

14a) [line 35] PUNDYON (CURRENCY)

  • 1 Sela = 4 Dinar
  • 1 Dinar = 6 Me'ah
  • 1 Me'ah = 2 Pundeyon
  • 1 Pundeyon = 2 Isar
  • 1 Isar = 6-8 Prutah (based on Kidushin 12a)

  • 1 Sela = 48 Pundeyon
b) [line 36] SE'IN (MEASURES)
  • 1 Se'ah = 6 Kav
  • 1 Kav = 4 Log
  • 1 Log = 6 Beitzim
  • 1 Beitzah = approximately .0576 liters or .1 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions

  • 1 Se'ah = 24 Log = 12 half-Kav
  • 4 Se'ah cost 1 Sela (= 4 Dinar)
  • 1 Se'ah (= 12 half-Kav) costs 1 Dinar (12 Pundeyon)
  • 1 half-Kav costs 1 Pundeyon
15) [line 36] SHTEI YADOS L'KIKAR MI'SHALOSH L'KAV - two thirds of a loaf of bread where three loaves comprise a Kav
1 loaf of bread = 1/3 Kav
2/3 loaf of bread = 2/9 Kav

16) [line 37] BAYIS HA'MENUGA
(a) For a detailed description of how a house becomes a Bayis ha'Menuga (a house that has Tzara'as), see Background to Nidah 19:13 and Eruvin 51:11.
(b) Two verses describe what happens to a person who enters a house that has Tzara'as: "*veha'Ba* El ha'Bayis (one who enters the house) Kol Yemei Hisgir Oso, Yitma Ad ha'Erev" (Vayikra 14:46)
"veha'Shochev ba'Bayis Yechabes Es Begadav, *veha'Ochel* ba'Bayis (one who eats in the house) Yechabes Es Begadav" (ibid. 14:47)
From the first verse we learn that any *person* (or item) that comes into the house becomes Tamei. The clothes that the person is *wearing*, however, do not yet become Tamei. From the second verse we learn that if someone lingers in the house for the amount of time it takes to eat a Pras (half of a loaf of wheat bread) dipped in relish, while he is reclining, then even the clothes that he is *wearing* become Tamei (Eruvin 4a).

17) [line 38] LIFSOL ES HA'GEVIYAH
The Chachamim decreed that a person who eats a half-Pras (2 Beitzim) of food that is Tamei may not eat Terumah. He makes Terumah Pasul if he touches it

18) [line 40] RIFTA IKARYASA - loaves of bread eaten in the fields by oxen drivers
19) [line 41] RIFTA NEHAR PAFYASA - loaves of bread which are made in Nehar Papa, the name of a canal and a place in Bavel

20) [line 43] D'REBBI YEHUDAH ARBA SE'UDASA L'KAVA - according to Rebbi Yehudah, half a Kav constitutes two meals. Therefore an entire Kav constitutes four meals

21) [line 44] D'REBBI SHIMON TESHA SE'UDASA L'KAVA - according to Rebbi Shimon 2/9 Kav constitutes two meals; each meal is the equivalent of one- ninth of a Kav. Therefore an entire Kav constitutes nine meals

22) [line 47] TZIVEI - small pieces of wood for baking

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