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Eruvin 78

1) [line 1] ZIZ - a protruding piece of wood or stone; ledge
2a) [line 3] D'OSVEI ALEI - he leaned the ladder on the protrusion
b) [line 3] OSVEI BAHADEI - he leaned the ladder on the wall next to the protrusion
3) [line 3] ARVUCHEI ARVECHEI - he widened the protrusion
*4*) [line 8] AMUD B'RESHUS HA'RABIM - It is not at all clear why the Gemara mentions this here, according to Rashi's explanation of the Sugya. The Rambam, however, explains that the Gemara is talking about *shortening* an Amud by inserting a peg along its *height*, in which case it is indeed relevant to the previous discussions (although his explanation is somewhat Dachuk). (SEFAS EMES)

5) [line 9] YASED - (O.F. cheville) a peg
6) [line 14] EFSHAR D'TALI BEI MIDI - he can hang something on it
7a) [line 17] BOR - a pit
b) [line 17] V'CHULYASAH - and its embankment that is comprised of dirt from the pit
8) [line 19] D'MANACH MIDI - he places an object such as a board or a stone [over the pit]
9) [line 25] SULAM ZAKUF - a ladder which is placed vertically (with no slant at all)
10) [line 26] GEMARA - is known to be Mema'et due to a tradition
11) [line 35] KASHIN - straw


(a) According to Rebbi, the prohibitions of "Shevus," or the Isurei d'Rabanan of Shabbos, do not apply during Bein ha'Shemashos. This is the Halachah as well (SHULCHAN ARUCH OC 307:22, 342:1).
(b) The RITVA cites the RA'AVAD who states that when Rebbi said that the prohibitions of "Shevus" do not apply during Bein ha'Shemashos, he was referring only to the laws of Eruvei Techumin. Rebbi is saying that when the Rabanan enacted the laws of Eruvei Techumin, they said that the Eruv is valid as long as there is no Isur d'Oraisa preventing one from getting to his Eruv. If there is an Isur d'Rabanan preventing access to the Eruv, the Eruv is nevertheless valid. However, they did not actually *permit* doing an Isur d'Rabanan during Bein ha'Shemashos, even in order to get to the Eruv.
(c) The RAMBAM (Hilchos Shabbos 24:10) writes that it is permitted to transgress an Isur "Shevus" during Bein ha'Shemashos *for the sake of a Mitzvah*. Since an Eruv Techumin is made for a Devar Mitzvah (such as going to learn Torah from a teacher who is farther than 2000 Amos away), it is permitted to transgress an Isur "Shevus" for that purpose. (MAGID MISHNAH ibid.)

13) [line 9] V'ARYA HU D'REVI'A ALEI - lit. and a lion is crouched before it. That is, the prohibition of climbing a tree on Shabbos does not make it as if the tree does not connect the two courtyards

14) [line 10] ASHEIRAH - a tree that had been worshipped as an Avodah Zarah. (Asheirah was a popular fertility goddess in the Near East. She is identified with Astarte (Ashtaros) and Aphrodite.)

(a) The Torah classifies many objects as Isurei Hana'ah (items from which it is prohibited to benefit), such as Orlah (see Background to Berachos 36:15), Kil'ei ha'Kerem (see Background to Eruvin 3:18), Eglah Arufah (see Background to Eruvin 35:19), Tziporei Metzora (see Background to Nidah 70:1), a Nazir's hair (see Background to Eruvin 4:15), Shor ha'Niskal (see Background to Nidah 8:4), Avodah Zarah (see Background to Shabbos 82:35), Ir ha'Nidachas (see Background to Kerisus 24:7), Peter Chamor (see Introduction to Bechoros 1:III), Basar b'Chalav (see Background to Chulin 103:6), Chulin she'Nishchetu ba'Azarah (see Background to Temurah 33:5) and a dead body (see Gemara Avodah Zarah 29b) and its grave or shrouds (Gemara Sanhedrin 47b).
(b) Rebbi Yehudah and the Rabanan argue as to whether one may put an Eruv Techumin on a gravestone, which is Asur b'Hana'ah (Daf 31a). Rebbi Yehudah permits placing an Eruv there, asserting that one is not deriving benefit from the grave in this manner since he does not care whether or not his Eruv remains there all Shabbos and is protected there from predators. It only has to be there Bein ha'Shemashos. The Rabanan prohibit placing an Eruv on a gravestone because they hold that one normally wants his Eruv to be protected and to remain intact throughout Shabbos. By placing it on a gravestone, one is using the gravestone to protect it, which is prohibited.

16) [line 29] GEZUZTERA'OS - (O.F. aledoir) balconies
17) [line 32] MASBEN - a heap of straw; haystack

(a) A space that is a Tefach by a Tefach square and a Tefach high is considered to be an "Ohel." If a k'Zayis from a corpse is anywhere in an Ohel, Tum'ah spreads out in all directions to fill the entire Ohel but does not rise above the Ohel.
(b) A space that is less than a Tefach high and a Tefach wide and deep, is not considered an Ohel. Tum'as Mes in such an area is called "Tum'ah Retzutzah" (smashed or squashed Tum'ah) or "Tum'ah Temunah" (hidden Tum'ah). Such Tum'ah does not spread throughout the enclosure, but "breaks through" (Boka'as) the enclosure and goes straight up and straight down, as if it were in the open air.
(c) The Mishnah (Ohalos 15:7) brought by our Gemara deals with a house filled with straw where the owner declares that he will never remove the straw (Bitlo). If a k'Zayis from a corpse is buried in the straw, it is Tum'ah Retzutzah and the house does not become an Ohel ha'Tum'ah.

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