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Eruvin 61

ERUVIN 61 - was generously dedicated by an anonymous donor in Los Angeles.

***************GIRSA SECTION********************
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach, Rav B. Rensburg and the parenthetical marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any *OTHER* changes that we feel ought to be made in Gemara, Rashi or Tosfos.)

[1] Rashi 61a DH Metatregei Lehu Benei Geder l'Chamesan:
The words "Makin *v'Horgin* Hayu"
appear as "Makin *v'Chovtin* Hayu" in the Soncino edition

[2] Gemara 61b [line 28]:
the words "b'Vei Chenishta *d'Vei Agovar*"
should be "b'Vei Chenishta *d'Abei Govar*"
This is the Girsa in numerous places in Shas and in almost all of the early
printings (Dikdukei Sofrim #90)

*1*) [line 20] IR SHE'YOSHEVES AL SEFAS HA'NACHAL - that is, all the houses of the city are built alongside a river or wadi (according to Rashi)

2) [line 22] DAKAH ARBA'AH - (a) a wall four Tefachim high at the edge of the river or wadi. (This is corrected by Abaye to be four Amos. In some Girsa'os, Rav Yosef says Dakah Arba, a wall four Amos high). The purpose of the wall is to prevent people from falling into the river or wadi (RASHI);
(b) a wall built outside of the city wall to prevent the water of the river from rising and flooding the city (RITVA quoting RASHI); the Ritva argues with Rashi and maintains that the *width* of the wall must be four Amos;
(c) a platform built at the edge of the wadi at a distance from the city which makes the wadi usable when it is dry (RABEINU CHANANEL - see RITVA)

3) [line 26] LO BA'ISA TASHMISHTA - use of the area is not frightening
4a) [line 29] GEDER - a city in the Galilee on the slope of a mountain above the city of Chamesan (see next entry)
b) [line 29] CHAMESAN - a city in the Galilee, not far from Teveryah (Megilah 2b), which contained an area of hot springs (Shabbos 109a)

5) [line 30] HANEI AVUD DAKAH - the people of Geder made a wall and consequently measure their Techum from the wall

6) [line 32] TATRUGEI METATREGEI - they beat
7) [line 33] KALBA B'LO MASEI, SHEV SHENIN LO NAVACH - a dog which is out of its city does not bark for seven years

8) [line 34] KULEI HAI LO KAIFEI LEHU - [when in Chamesan, the people of Geder] are not so submissive to them (as to let the people of Chamesan harass them)


9) [line 2] IR CHAREIVAH - a walled city which is desolate
10) [line 12] ANTUCHYA - the capital of Seleucid and Roman Syria founded by Seleucus Nicator, situated on the Orontes River, which was the center of ancient trade routes between the Euphrates and the Mediterranean (presently located in Turkey)

11) [line 13] ME'ARAS TZIDKIYAHU - the cave through which King Tzidkiyahu tried to escape from the Babylonians which led from his house in Yerushalayim to the plains of Jericho (RASHI to Yechezkel 12:13)

12) [line 27] BENEI MAVRACHTA - a caravan station and market near Machoza
13) [line 28] BEI KENISHTA (D'VEI AGOVAR) D'ABEI GOVAR - a very large synagogue which was located in the Techum of Mavrachta

14) [line 29] GAVU BEI TEFEI - Place the Eruv further into the Techum
15) [line 30] PALGA'AH - disputant

*****PEREK #6 HA'DAR*****

(a) The King of Ashur brought the people of Kusa to Eretz Yisrael and made them settle in the Shomron. They converted to Judaism after they found themselves under attack from lions. The Chachamim disagree as to whether their conversion was honest and valid or not.
(b) After the times of the Mishnah, they were found worshipping an image of a dove. At that point, the Chachamim unanimously gave them the status of gentiles (Chulin 7a).

17) [line 34] HAREI ZEH OSER ALAV (Eruv: Sechiras Reshus)
(a) THE TORAH LAW - According to Torah law, in a courtyard (Chatzer) which has in it houses owned by different people, all of the neighbors may transfer objects from their houses to the courtyard and into other houses on Shabbos. Even though each house is a separately owned Reshus ha'Yachid and the Chatzer is a joinly owned Reshus ha'Yachid, it is permissible to move objects from one Reshus ha'Yachid to another.
(b) ERUV CHATZEIROS - King Shlomo decreed that transferring objects from one Reshus ha'Yachid to another is forbidden unless an *Eruv Chatzeiros* (lit. a mixing of the courtyard, Rambam Hil. Eruvin 1:6; or fraternization of the courtyard, Eruvin 49a) is created on Friday, before Shabbos begins. (Shabbos 14b, Eruvin 21b). This is accomplished by all of the neighbors collectively setting aside a loaf of bread, in one common container, in one of the houses of the courtyard. This shows that all neighbors have an equal share in all of the Reshuyos ha'Yachid, just as they all have a share in that bread. Through this act, they can be considered one Reshus again. (RAMBAM ibid. 1:4-9)
(c) SECHIRAS RESHUS - A non-Jew who lives in a house in the courtyard may not join in the Eruv Chatzeiros. His neighbors must rent from him the right to place their belongings in his share of the courtyard. The rental may be done with even less than a Perutah.

18) [line 37] TZEDUKI
The Tzedukim and Beitusim were students of Tzadok and Beitus who rejected the Oral Torah (Avos d'Rebbi Nasan 5:2).

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