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Eruvin 51

ERUVIN 51 - was generously dedicated by an anonymous donor in Los Angeles.

***************GIRSA SECTION********************
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach, Rav B. Rensburg and the parenthetical marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any *OTHER* changes that we feel ought to be made in Gemara, Rashi or Tosfos.)

[1] Rashi 51a DH Makom mi'Makom:
The words "d'Chsiv *mi'Gevul* Ir Miklato"
should be "d'Chsiv *Es Gevul* Ir Miklato" (Bamidbar 35:26)

[2] Gemara 51b [line 24]:
The word "b'ARUMA"
should be "b'RUMA" (Dikdukei Sofrim #5)

[3] Gemara 51b [last line]:
The word "me'ARTIVNA"
should be "me'ARTEVANYA" (Dikdukei Sofrim #10)

1) [line 1] D'CHI RAHIT L'IKARO MATI - [he is close enough such that] if he runs to the trunk of the tree, he would arrive there before it gets dark

2) [line 4] KI MASGI KALI KALI - when he goes slowly (lit. little by little)
3) [line 7] TUSEI DIKLA D'SAVIL ACHUHA - beneath the palm that supports its neighboring palm

4) [line 8] D'FARIK MAREI MI'KARGA - that redeems its owner from the tax (by producing enough fruits to pay the tax)

5) [line 14] D'LIKBAL LAH MINEI - he should accept it from him

(a) The Chachamim laid down various rules which determine the Halachah when there is an argument among the Tana'im.
(b) The Halachah follows the opinion of Rebbi Yosi when he argues with an individual Tana since "Nimuko Imo," which means (1) he reasons solidly (from the word Nimuk, reason or argument); or (2) his opinion is the straightest, most exact one (from the words Nim v'Kav, his words are as straight as a Kav Mishkoles, plumbline).

7) [line 19] LAMADNU MAKOM MI'MAKOM, U'MAKOM MI'NISAH ... - We learn a multi-stage Gezerah Shavah to connect the word "Makom" in the Pasuk "Al Yetze Ish mi'Mekomo" (Shemos 16:29) to the word "Chutz" in the Pasuk "u'Madosem mi'Chutz la'Ir ..." (Bamidbar 35:5), which contains the 2000-Amah measurement. That is, the Pasuk with the word "Makom" is compared to a Pasuk with both the words "Makom" and "Nisah," e.g. "v'Samti Lecha Makom Asher Yanus Shamah (Shemos 21:13). This Pasuk is in turn compared to a Pasuk with the words "Nisah" and "Gevul," e.g. "Es Gevul Ir Miklato Asher Yanus" (Bamidbar 35:26), and so on.

"And you shall measure outside the city on the eastern side 2000 Amos, and on the southern side 2000 Amos, and on the western side 2000 Amos, and on the northern side 2000 Amos, with the city in the center; this shall constitute the city's open areas." (Bamidbar 35:5)

9) [line 22] "[U'MIGRESHEI HE'ARIM ASHER TITNU LA'LEVIYIM] MI'KIR HA'IR VA'CHUTZAH ELEF AMAH [SAVIV]" - "[The open areas that you shall give the Leviyim] shall extend outwards 1000 Amos from the city wall [all around]." (ibid. 35:4)

(a) When the land of Yisrael was divided among the tribes of Yisrael, all tribes received a portion of land except for the tribe of Levi (Bamidbar 26:62, Yehoshua 14:4). The Leviyim were settled in the six Arei Miklat and in forty-two other cities that were designated as "Arei Leviyim" (Yehoshua 21:3-39).
(b) Part of the grant of land that the Leviyim received was the 2000-Amah area outside of their cities. The first one thousand Amos from the wall of the city is called the Migrash of the city. It is left unplanted and is known as the "Noy ha'Ir" (the beauty of the city). The remaining one thousand Amos is designated for fields and vineyards.

11) [line 24] ZU HI SHIVAH, ZU HI BI'AH
(a) Regarding a house that was put into quarantine because of Tzara'as, the Pasuk says (Vayikra 14:39) "v'*Shav* ha'Kohen". The Torah requires that the Kohen *return* to inspect the house seven days after the Tzara'as was first noted. If the Tzara'as has spread, the infected stones must be removed from the house and the surrounding plaster scraped off. New stones are inserted and new plaster applied, and the house is put into quarantine for another week. If the Tzara'as returns by the end of the week of quarantine, the entire house must be dismantled.
(b) In Vayikra 14:44 it is written "u'*Va* Ha'kohen," which means "if, when the Kohen *comes* back to the house to inspect it a second time, he finds that the spot of Tzara'as has spread, the house is Tamei." Chazal teach that this verse is referring to a spot of Tzara'as that does *not* spread during its first week. The Kohen "comes back to the house" after a second week to see whether the spot has spread, remains, or has disappeared. If it either remains in place or spreads, the Kohen must follow the procedure described above (remove the infected stones, scrape off the surrounding plaster, replace with new stones and plaster, and allow a one-week quarantine period).
(c) Even though the words "v'Shav" and "u'Va" are not identical, they are referring to the same action; namely the Kohen entering the house to inspect it. This relates the two verses to each other with a Gezerah Shavah in order to teach us that just as the house is not dismantled if the Tzara'as spreads during the first week -- unless the stones are scraped and the Tzara'as returned to the house after a week of quarantine -- so too the house is not dismantled if the Tzara'as spread during the second week unless it returns to the house after the quarantine period that follows the scraping.
12) [line 27] PEI'OS KESIVAN - the word PE'AH (side, corner) is written a number of times in the Pasuk, which gives the impression that the Techum is square

(a) HOTZA'AH is the last of the thirty-nine Avos Melachos of Shabbos. It involves either (1) transferring objects from a Reshus ha'Yachid to a Reshus ha'Rabim, (2) Hachnasah, which refers to transferring objects from a Reshus ha'Rabim to a Reshus ha'Yachid, (3) Ma'avir Arba Amos b'Reshus ha'Rabim, or carrying an object from one place in Reshus ha'Rabim to another over a distance of at least four Amos, (4) Moshit, which involves *passing* an object from one Reshus ha'Yachid to another through Reshus ha'Rabim (as described in the Mishnah in Shabbos 96a, see Background to Shabbos 4a). These are all biblical prohibitions.
(b) AKIRAH & HANACHAH - In order to transgress the biblical prohibition of Hotza'ah, certain conditions must be met. An Akirah (initiation of movement) and a Hanachah (putting the object to rest) must be performed on the object by the same person. If one person does the Akirah and another does the Hanachah, only a rabbinical prohibition is involved, as the Gemara states in Shabbos 3a.

14) [line 31] HEN V'ALACHSONAN - the diagonal of a square which is 4 X 4 Amos, i.e. approx. 5.6 Amos

15) [line 31] BADIK LAN RAVA - Rava tested us

RESHUS HA'YACHID (the private domain) is comprised of places that have an area of at least four by four Tefachim and are enclosed by a ten Tefach high partition on at least three sides, such as enclosed yards, or ditches with these dimensions (since the vertical wall of the ditch acts as a partition). A ten-Tefach-high mound that is 4 by 4 Tefachim wide at its top is also a Reshus ha'Yachid.


*16*) [line 16] CHUTZ L'TECHUM - that is, close to the edge of the Techum, or outside of the Ibur of his city (He cannot be literally outside of his Techum, for in that case he certainly would be "on the road," and he would be judged an Ani) -Rashi and Tosfos

17) [line 24] ANSHEI BEIS MAMAL - the members of the family of Mamal
18) [line 24] ANSHEI BEIS GURYON - the members of the family of Guryon
19) [line 24] (ARUMA) [RUMAH] - a place in the Galilee
20) [line 25] GROGEROS - dried figs
21) [line 25] TZIMUKIN - raisins
22) [line 25] KEFAR SHICHIN - the village of Shichin (probably near Shichin, which was near Tzipori, in the upper Galilee)

23) [line 26] KEFAR CHANANYAH - the village of Chananyah, a village in the Galilee

*25*) [line 28] MAI SHENA IHU, U'MAI SHENA INHU? - that is, the Eruv should *not* work for the one who started on the road (since he turned back and decided against going), and the Eruv *should* work for the people of the city (since they never showed signs of regretting the journey).

26) [line 30] KEIVAN D'NAFKA LEI L'URCHA - since he has already started on his way

27) [last line] (ARTIVNA) [ARTEVANYA] - Artabania, a place in Bavel named after Artaban IV, the last Parthian king

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