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Eruvin 45

ERUVIN 45 - Dedicated in memory of Meir Menachem (Max) Turkel, whose Yahrzeit is the 5th of Teves, by his wife, Jean, and his sons, Eddie and Lawrence Turkel.

1) [line 6] U'MID'REBBI ELIEZER KA'MOSVAS LEI L'MAR? - Do you contest Rabah's opinion by quoting the opinion of Rebbi Eliezer? The Chachamim argue with him!

2) [line 12] SHE'CHOZRIN BI'CHLEI ZAYIN L'MEKOMAN - they may return with their weapons to their city

(a) The Hebrew calendar month which determines the Jewish holidays begins with each new revolution of the moon, at the point after it wanes completely and begins to wax anew.
(b) When the Sanhedrin of the Lishkas ha'Gazis (the Jewish "supreme court") convened in Eretz Yisrael, the new month was fixed and sanctified according to the testimony of witnesses. A person who sees the moon (as it begins to grow and is just visible) would travel to the Sanhedrin, or to a Beis Din appointed by the Sanhedrin, to testify. The place where the Beis Din convened to accept testimony was known as the Beis ha'Va'ad. The testimonies were examined there, and when Beis Din was convinced of the witnesses' accuracy, they announced the beginning of the new month.
(c) Today, mathematical calculations are used to determine the beginning of the new month. According to
(Hilchos Kidush ha'Chodesh 5:2) it is a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai to determine the beginning of the month mathematically when there is no Sanhedrin, and through testimony when there is one.

4) [line 16] CHACHAMAH - a midwife
5) [line 17] MAPOLES - a cave-in
6) [line 24] SHE'NITZCHU YISRAEL - when the Jews were victorious
7) [line 25] SHE'TZARU - who made a siege
8) [line 29] SEFAR - the border
9) [line 31] TARGUMA - he explained that this refers to Naharde'a (see Insights)
10) [line 32] "VA'YAGIDU L'DAVID LEIMOR ..." - "Then they told David, 'Behold! The Pelishtim are fighting against Ke'ilah, and are plundering the threshing floors!'" (Shmuel I 23:1)

11) [line 38] MATZLACH - he will succeed


(a) A person is only allowed to walk a distance of 2000 Amos, approximately 960 meters (3147 feet) or 1,152 meters (3774 feet), depending upon the differing Halachic opinions, from his city or dwelling place (if he is not in a city) on Shabbos or Yom Tov. If he wants to walk another 2000 Amos, he must make an Eruv Techumin.
(b) This is accomplished by placing an amount of food that would be used for two meals nearly 2000 Amos away from his present location, in the direction in which he wishes to walk. The location where his food is placed is considered his new dwelling or *place of Shevisah* for that Shabbos or Yom Tov, and he may walk 2000 Amos in any direction from there. In addition to people, *objects* also acquire a place of Shevisah, preventing them from being removed 2000 Amos from their Makom Shevisah on Shabbos or Yom Tov. Objects that have owners receive the Techum of their owners.
(c) The Tana'im argue as to whether ownerless objects acquire a Makom Shevisah, preventing them from being removed 2000 Amos from their Makom Shevisah on Shabbos or Yom Tov, or not. If they do not acquire a Makom Shevisah, their Techum is like the Techum of the person who takes possession of them on Shabbos.

13) [line 38] OKIYANUS - the ocean
14) [line 41] SHE'NISKASHRU - that formed
15) [last line] MAYA B'EIVA MIVLA BELI'EI - water is absorbed in the clouds (Chazal consider something that is absorbed in another object as non-existent)

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