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Eruvin 35

ERUVIN 31-35 - have been dedicated by Mrs. Rita Grunberger of Queens, N.Y., in loving memory of her late husband, Yitzchok Yakov ben Eliyahu Grunberger. Mr Grunberger helped many people quietly in an unassuming manner and is sorely missed by all who knew him. Yahrzeit: 10 Sivan.

1a) [line 8] KARPIFOS - enclosed areas that are located outside of a settlement, used for storage of timber and other such objects. The enclosures were *not* made for dwelling purposes.
b) [line 9] SHE'SHAVSU B'SOCHAN - that "rested" in them, i.e. that were in them from the beginning of Shabbos

2) [line 12] EIN BINYAN B'CHEILIM (Building Does Not Apply to Utensils)
(a) Binyan (building) and Setirah (destroying) are two of the 39 Avos Melachos that are prohibited on Shabbos (Mishnah Shabbos 73a).
(b) Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel argue as to whether the prohibition of Binyan and Setirah apply only to objects that are attached to the ground or to movable utensils, also. According to Beis Hillel, Binyan and Setirah do not apply to utensils; they only apply to objects that are connected to the ground (Beitzah 21b).
(c) The Risonim argue over the meaning of Beis Hillel's phrase, "Ein Binyan b'Cheilim." According to Rashi, even a person who makes an *entire* utensil from scratch will not be Chayav for Binyan. (RASHI Shabbos 47a DH Chayav and 74b DH Chayav). According to TOSFOS, however, a person who makes an entire utensil or destroys it *is* Chayav for Binyan or Setirah. Ein Binyan b'Cheilim means that it is not prohibited to connect or disconnect parts of a utensil to make one large utensil or to dismantle it (TOSFOS Shabbos 74b DH Chavita, 102b DH Hai).

3) [line 14] HEKISH - if a Zav knocked with his fist
4) [line 18] V'NISAT - and it moved
5) [line 21] MACHMAS RE'ADAH - due to the vibrations (which the Zav caused)
6) [line 26] MAN'UL V'KATIR B'MISNA - a lock which is tied with a rope
7) [line 29] MASAR HA'GADOL - a large saw (used for cutting beams)
8) [line 29] YASED SHEL MACHAREISHAH - the spike of a plow (used for making furrows)
9) [line 31] TARVAD - a spoon

10) [line 36] CHAMAR GAMAL - (lit. a donkey-driver and a camel-driver) This is a metaphor for this person's predicament, meaning that (a) Someone who drives a donkey that is in front of him and leads a camel that is behind him at the same time, must look in both directions simultaneously, making it difficult to get anywhere (RASHI); or (b) A donkey is normally driven from behind and a camel is normally led from the front. If a person switches their positions, both animals will not move according to his will, and he will not get very far (RABEINU CHANANEL). Similarly, a person who is in doubt as to whether his Eruv is valid is only permitted to walk the 2000 Amos between his city and his Eruv. He may not walk beyond his Eruv lest it is invalid and he is only allowed 2000 Amos from his city. Likewise, he may not walk outside of his city in the direction *opposite* his Eruv, since it may be valid, and if so, he is only allowed an extra 2000 Amos from his Eruv, and he looses the 2000 Amos outside of his city in the direction opposite his Eruv.

11) [line 46] MARA - a hoe or an ax
12) [line 46] CHATZINA - a carpenter's adze, a type of ax


The Chachamim decreed that a person who eats a half-Pras (2 Beitzim) of food which is Tamei may not eat Terumah. He makes Terumah Pasul if he touches it

(a) The Gemara (Shabbos 13b-17b) records that during the time of the Tana'im there was a period when the Rabanan instituted eighteen decrees which dealt mostly with Tum'ah and Taharah. The four cases of Tum'ah Kalah (less stringent Tum'ah) listed in our Gemara belong to these decrees.
(b) If one immersed in a Mikvah and then put his head and most of his body into drawn water (Mayim She'uvim), he is Tamei. The Gemara (Shabbos 13b) explains that the practice was that immediately after immersing in the Mikvah, one would pour over himself drawn water in order to clean himself. The Rabanan, fearing that people may begin to think that the drawn water and not the Mikvah, is what makes a person Tahor, decreed that if one pours drawn water over himself after immersing, or submerges himself into a pool of drawn water after immersing, he becomes Tamei.

A person is only allowed to travel a distance of two thousand Amos from his city or dwelling place (if he is not in a city) on Shabbos or Yom Tov. Rebbi Akiva claims that this Halachah of "Techum Shabbos" is mentioned in the Torah. He compares two verses which specify the outer boundaries of the cities that were given to the Levi'im. One verse (Bamidbar 35:4) states that their cities' Migrashim (the open spaces outside of the cities) extend one thousand Amos from the wall of the city. The next verse (ibid. 35:5) specifies that the boundaries of the cities extend for two thousand Amos from the edges of the city. He explains that the first verse gives the cities' boundaries while the second verse sets the Techum Shabbos.

18) [line 25] AREI MIKLAT (Cities of Refuge)
(a) A person who murders intentionally after having been previously warned is liable to the death penalty. A person who murders unintentionally is exempt from the death penalty, but is punished with Galus (banishment).
(b) When it is proven that a person killed unintentionally, he is banished to one of the six Arei Miklat (Cities of Refuge) or one of the forty-two cities of the Leviyim. He must stay there and not leave the city for any reason whatsoever until the death of the Kohen Gadol who served at the time that he was sentenced to banishment.
(c) If the unintentional murderer leaves his City of Refuge, the Go'el ha'Dam (the closest relative of the murdered person) is permitted to avenge the death of his relative and kill the murderer.

19) [line 25] EGLAH ARUFAH
(a) If a Jew is found murdered in a field (in Israel) and it is not known who the murderer is, the Torah (Devarim 21:1) requires that an Eglah Arufah be brought in order to atone for the blood that was spilled.
(b) Five elders of the Beis Din of the Lishkas ha'Gazis (the Jewish "supreme court") measure the distance between the dead body and the cities around it to determine which city is closest to it.
(c) The elders of the city that is closest to the corpse must bring a female calf that has never been worked to a Nachal Eisan (a swiftly flowing stream - RAMBAM Hilchos Rotze'ach 9:2; a valley with tough soil - RASHI) and strike it on the back of its neck (Arifah) with a cleaver, severing its spinal column, gullet and windpipe.
(d) The elders of the closest city then wash their hands there and say, "Our hands have not spilled this blood, and our eyes did not see [the murder]." (Devarim 21:7) This includes a proclamation that the dead man was not sent away from the city without the proper food for his journey or the proper accompaniment. The Kohanim that are present say, "Atone for Your people Yisrael whom You have redeemed, HaSh-m, and do not place [the guilt for] innocent blood in the midst of Your people Yisrael." (ibid. 21:8) After this procedure HaSh-m will grant atonement for the innocent blood that was spilled (RAMBAM Hilchos Rotze'ach 9:3).

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