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ERUVIN 31-35 - have been dedicated by Mrs. Rita Grunberger
of Queens, N.Y., in loving memory of her late husband, Yitzchok
Yakov ben Eliyahu Grunberger. Mr Grunberger helped many
people quietly in an unassuming manner and is sorely missed by
all who knew him. Yahrzeit: 10 Sivan.
1) [line 4] CHADASH
(a) Chadash is any grain that has not begun to take root until after the
Korban ha'Omer is brought on the second day of Pesach. This grain may not be
eaten until next year's Korban ha'Omer is brought, as it states in Vayikra
23:14 ("v'Lechem v'Kali v'Charmel Lo Sochlu ...").
(b) Rebbi Yochanan ben Zakai decreed that in a time when there is no Korban
ha'Omer, Chadash may not be eaten after sunset of the 16th of Nisan, the day
when the Korban ha'Omer *would have* been brought.
(c) Many Rishonim rule that the prohibition of Chadash applies mid'Oraisa
even in Chutz la'Aretz.
2) [line 15] LEIDAH O ZIVAH (KINEI LEIDAH V'ZIVAH)
(a) When a woman becomes Tehorah after giving birth or being a Zavah, she
must bring a Korban to complete her purification process and to enable her
to eat Kodshim and enter the Beis ha'Mikdash.
(b) The Korban brought by a Zavah is two turtle-doves or two common doves,
one as an Olah and one as a Chatas. A pair of birds is known as a Ken
(plural Kinim) which means "nest."
(c) The Korban brought by a Yoledes (a woman who gave birth) includes a male
sheep as an Olah and a turtledove or a common dove as a Chatas. If she could
not afford a sheep, she brings 2 turtledoves or 2 common doves, one as an
Olah and one as a Chatas. Since the poor were the majority, the Korban of a
Yoledes also became known as Kinim.
(d) An Olas ha'Of and Chatas ha'Of were offered on the Mizbe'ach differently
(e.g. the blood of the Olas ha'Of was pressed out above the Chut ha'Sikra
(red line) that divided the Mizbe'ach in half, whereas the blood of the
Chatas ha'Of was sprinkled below the Chut ha'Sikra). If one was offered in
the manner prescribed for the other, it became Pasul. Therefore, the Kohen
had to know which one he was offering.
3) [line 16] SHOFAR
A Shofar is a box in the shape of a Shofar-horn for depositing money. Its
opening was narrow so that it would be impossible to reach in and steal its
contents. There were thirteen Shofaros in the Beis ha'Mikdash; each one for
a different purpose. The Shofar of Kinin was used by those who brought money
to bring their *obligatory* birds for atonement, i.e. Zavim, Zavos and
4) [line 24] KALKALAH - a basket
5) [line 30] SHE'LO NECHSHEDU CHAVERIM LITROM SHE'LO MIN HA'MUKAF
(a) After a crop is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he
must separate Terumah from the crop and give it to a Kohen. Although the
Torah does not specify the amount to be given, the Rabanan set the
requirement at one fiftieth of the total crop. Before Terumah is separated,
the crop is Tevel and may not be eaten.
(b) The Rabanan decreed that Terumah must be separated when the produce that
will become Terumah and the rest of the crop are together in front of the
person separating them. The prohibition was invoked so that a person does
not unknowingly designate Terumah from produce that has already rotted or
been lost, and then eat from the crop thinking that Terumah has been
separated while in reality he is eating Tevel. Chaverim (= Talmidei
Chachamim) are particularly meticulous with regard to this Halachah.
6) [line 38] DAVAR SHE'EINO MESUKAN - food which has not been tithed
7) [line 43] MI TZAYIS? - would he listen?
8) [line 47] AMEI HA'ARETZ MAI BA'I HASAM - (lit. what are the Amei ha'Aretz
doing there?) If, as the Gemara currently assumes, an Am ha'Aretz was the
one who said "Go out and gather figs ..." to a *Chaver*, why is Rebbi
worried that an Am ha'Aretz might eat Tevel?
9) [line 9] KELILA - light, lenient
10) [line 19] B'RESHUS HA'YACHID
Reshus Ha'Yachid (the private domain) is comprised of areas that have an
area of at least four by four Tefachim and are enclosed by a ten Tefach high
partition on at least three sides, such as enclosed yards, or ditches with
these dimensions (since the vertical wall of the ditch acts as a partition).
A ten Tefach high mound that is 4 by 4 Tefachim wide at its top is also a
Reshus ha'Yachid. Reshus ha'Rabim and Reshus ha'Yachid are Reshuyos which
are recognized by the Torah. Transferring from one to the other is
11) [line 21] B'RESHUS HA'RABIM
Reshus ha'Rabim (the public domain) includes 16 Amah wide thoroughfares or
streets which are open at both ends, and open plazas that can hold many
people at the same time. (According to some Rishonim, 600,000 people must
use the area for it to be considered Reshus ha'Rabim, see Insights to
12) [line 22] LISHBOS - to reside for Shabbos
13) [line 25] MISHTAMESH B'ILAN
The Rabanan made a decree not to use or to support oneself with anything
that is attached to the ground and higher than three Tefachim above the
ground, for fear that the person will transgress the Melachah of Kotzer
(reaping) on Shabbos.
14) [line 27] KOL DAVER SHE'HU MISHUM SHEVUS - anything which is forbidden
because of a decree of the Chachamim
15) [line 29] (YASHAR) [YEYASHER] - well said! you said correctly!
16) [line 29] AMRU LEI PASRISU BAH KULEI HAI - they asked Rav Nachman: "have
you interpreted the Mishnah in so much detail [as to explain that (a) the
tree is in Reshus ha'Rabim, (b) the person intended to reside at its base
and (c) the Mishnah follows the opinion of Rebbi]?"
17) [line 30] INHU NAMI HACHI KA PASRI BAH - but they also interpreted it
18) [line 31] KAV'ISU LEI BA'GEMARA - did you include it in the Gemara (oral
explanation of the Mishnah)?
19) [line 38] IBURAH SHEL IR (The City Limits)
(a) A person is only allowed to walk a distance of 2000 Amos, approximately
960 meters (3147 feet) or 1,152 meters (3774 feet), depending upon the
differing Halachic opinions, from his city (or dwelling place if he is not
in a city) on Shabbos or Yom Tov.
(b) If permanent or temporary dwellings are located within 70 2/3 Amos of
the city, Iburo Shel Ir (the city limits) extend until the last dwelling,
and the 2000 Amos are measured from there.
*20*) [line 40] D'MASA K'MAN D'MALYA DAMYA - that is, although the Ibur
ha'Ir (area adjacent to the city) is not walled, and is not a real Reshus
ha'Yachid, nevertheless the Rabanan enacted a leniency with regard to Eruvei
Techumim, and permitted making one's Shevisah in the Ibur ha'Ir (Reshus
ha'Rabim) even if he leaves food for the Eruv 10 Tefachim high in a tree
(Reshus ha'Yachid). Instead of invalidating the Eruv because he and the Eruv
are in different places, we look at it as though the Ibur ha'Ir is filled
with dirt up to 10 Tefachim high, and that the person standing under the
tree is indeed standing on *top* of the tree, in a Reshus ha'Yachid, along
with his Eruv.