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Eruvin 19

ERUVIN 16-20 sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor. Kollel Iyun Hadaf is indebted to him for his encouragement and support and prays that Hashem will repay him in kind.

1) [line 4] CHAKAH - a hook or similar wooden instrument that holds open a convict's mouth, making it impossible to speak

2) [line 10] "OVREI B'EMEK HA'BACHA ..." - "Those who pass through the Valley of Weeping, turn it into a wellspring; moreover, the early rain covers it with blessings." (Tehilim 84:7) - Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi expounds on this verse using homiletics. "Ovrei" refers to sinners who transgressed the will of the Creator during their lifetime. "Emek," refers to the depths of Gehinom. "Ha'Bachah Ma'ayan Yeshisuhu" hints that these sinners shed tears like the fountain (the hole) of the Shisin (see next entry). "Gam Berachos Ya'ateh Moreh" relates that the sinners bless HaSh-m for his just ways. (The word for "early rain," "Moreh", is the same word for "teacher.")

3) [line 14] K'MA'AYAN SHEL SHISIN - like the fountain (the hole) in the Mizbe'ach through which wine of the Nesachim flows down to the Shisin (a hollow in the foundation of the Mizbe'ach)

4) [line 20] "V'YATZ'U V'RA'U ..." - "And they shall go forth, and look upon the carcasses of the men that have rebelled against me; for their worm shall not die, neither shall their fire be quenched; and they shall be an abhorrence to all flesh." (Yeshayahu 66:24)

5) [line 29] "K'FELACH HA'RIMON RAKASEICH ..." - "As a section of a pomegranate is your cheek within your veil." (Shir ha'Shirim 6:7) - Reish Lakish reads this verse to mean: "As many as a pomegranate's seeds are the merits of your unworthiest." (The word for "your cheek", "Rakaseich," hints at the word "Reik," or "empty.")

6) [line 30] REIKANIN - those who are bare of knowledge; ignorant
7) [line 33] D'MASHCHAH ARLASO - his prepuce is stretched out (concealing his circumcision)

8) [line 33] V'LO MEVASHKAR LEI - (a) and he (Avraham) does not recognize him (the Jew who concealed his circumcision) (RASHI); (b) and it (his circumcision) is not recognizable (ARUCH)

9) [line 42] GEI BEN HINOM - the name of the valley to the southwest of the Old City of Jerusalem

10) [line 43] TZINEI HAR HA'BARZEL, KESHEIROS - palm branches that grow on rocky mountains, that have very short leaves because of the lack of moisture, are Kosher for Netilas Lulav as long as the tips of the leaves reach the bases of the leaves above them

11) [line 44] BE'ER SHACHAS - Well of Destruction (Tehilim 55:24); it is called a well because it constantly spews forth destruction - see Rav S. R. Hirsch there

12) [line 44] BOR SHA'ON - the Gruesome Pit (Tehilim 40:3)
13) [line 44] TIT HA'YAVEN - the Miry Clay (ibid.)
14a) [line 47] "YOSHVEI CHOSHECH V'TZALMAVES" - "Those who sit in darkness and in the shadow of death, bound in affliction and iron [chains]." (Tehilim 107:10)
b) [line 48] SHE'AMUKAH (B'GEIHINOM) [K'GEIHINOM] - a valley that is as deep as the valley to the southwest of the Old City of Jerusalem

*15a*) [line 48] SHE'HA'KOL YORED LAH AL ISKEI HINAM - and it is *also* called Geihinom because all those who are there sink there (a) due to worthless matters, vanity; (b) due to immorality (RASHI)

16) [line 48] "KI ARUCH ME'ESMUL" - "For its hearth has been prepared long ago; yes, for the king (Sancheriv) it is in readiness. He has made it deep and large; its bonfire is of much fire and wood. breath of HaSh-m, like a stream of brimstone, kindles it." (Yeshayahu 30:33) - Although the prophecy deals with the downfall of the Assyrian king Sancheriv and the destruction of his army during their siege of Yerushalayim in the time of King Chizkiyahu, Chazal also interpret this verse as referring to the punishment of all sinners in Gehinom.

17) [line 49] KOL HA'MISPATEH B'YITZRO - whoever is seduced by his Evil Inclination
18a) [line 49] BEIS SHE'AN - a city in the Galilee, south of Lake Kineres, known for its extremely sweet fruits (possibly Peiros Ginosar, see Berachos 44a)
b) [line 49] BEIS GERAM - A place in Arabia known for its sweet fruits (MA'HARSHA)

*19*) [line 50] DUMASKENIN - Ya'avetz claims that this refers to Damascus. The Girsa of Dikdukei Sofrim #90, Durmaskenin, also supports this supposition, since the translation of Damesek according to Targum Yonasan is Darmasek (Breishis 14:15). However, the difficulty that arises is that Damascus lies hundreds of miles from the Euphrates River.

20) [line 50] MISHTABE'ACH B'FEIREI D'ME'EVER YAMINA - he praised the fruits that grow south of the Euphrates River

21) [line 51] HARPANYA - a rich industrial town in Bavel


22) [line 24] MEASUREMENTS
a) KUR - a parcel of land in which a Kur (= 30 Se'ah) of grain is normally planted, which is the of area 75,000 square Amos, approximately 17,280 square meters (186,000 square feet) or 24,883 square meters (267,837 square feet), depending upon the differing Halachic opinions
b) BEIS SE'ASAYIM - a parcel of land in which two Se'ah of grain is normally planted, which is the area of the Azarah of the Mishkan, 50 by 100 Amos, approx. 1,152 square meters (12,400 square feet) or 1,659 square meters (17,856 square feet), depending upon the differing Halachic opinions

1 KUR = 30 SE'AH
1 SE'AH = 6 KAV
1 KAV = 4 LUG
23) [line 27] TEL - a mound
24) [line 27] HA'MISLAKET ASARAH MI'TOCH ARBA - that gradually rises ten Tefachim within a horizontal distance of four Amos

25) [line 29] ILU TECHALEK - had it been hollowed out, leaving a v-shaped piece of the size necessary for a Diomad

26) [line 32] ILU TECHAKEK - had its sides been squared off
27) [line 35] CHITZAS HA'KANIM - planted reeds in the v-shape of a Diomad
*28*) [line 37] GURDISA D'KANEI - a round hedge of reeds (ten Tefachim in height) growing from a single stump (which is less than 10 Tefachim high). [That is, if a round group of reeds do *not* grow from a common stem, it is clear that they cannot be used for a Diomad. Ro'in cannot be applied since it is not a single solid object, nor can Lavud be applied since the reeds are not forming a 90 degree angle. Lavud+Ro'in cannot be used in combination in order to form a Diomad. However, if the reeds grow from a single stump, Ro'in can be applied to the stump (since the reeds protrude from it to a height of 10 Tefachim. Similarly, reeds forming a 90 degree angle can form a Diomad through the application of Lavud.]

*29*) [line 37] IY HACHI, HAINU ILAN - that is, if a Gurdisa is sufficient, the reason is because we apply the rule of "Ro'in." Why then did the Beraisa have to single out that a "tree" and a "Gurdisa" are both acceptable for a Diomad? (Had it only mentioned the *Gurdisa*, it would have been obvious that a tree, which is solid for an entire 10 Tefachim, can certainly be used for a Diomad!)

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