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Eruvin 16

ERUVIN 16-20 sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor. Kollel Iyun Hadaf is indebted to him for his encouragement and support and prays that Hashem will repay him in kind.

1) [line 1] AVITIN - cushions placed under saddles
2) [line 1] SHELIFIN - saddle packs
3) [line 1] KOLCHOS - stalks of plants
4) [line 7] KEDEI SHE'LO YIZDAKER HA'GEDI B'VAS ROSH - so that a goat will not be able to leap through with one headlong rush

5) [line 9] K'MILU'O - a space which is the same size as the partition

(a) For certain Halachos, the Torah requires that an area be set aside from the outside by being surrounded by Mechitzos (partitions). Mechitzos do not need to be solid. Breaches in the Mechitzos can be considered entranceways as long as they are not more than ten Amos wide.
(b) However, there is a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai that states that if "Parutz Merubeh Al ha'Omed," i.e. combined length of the breaches adds up to more than the combined length of the solid parts, the Mechitzah is not valid.
(c) Amora'im in the Gemara dispute whether the Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai applies only when the total length of the breaches is *more* than the length of the solid parts or even when they are *equal* to the length of the solid parts. Another question that is dealt with is whether a Tzuras ha'Pesach (see Background to Eruvin 6:7) will resolve the problem of Parutz Merubeh Al Ha'omed. (TOSFOS (Daf 17b DH Osin) remarks that *mid'Oraisa* Parutz Merubeh does not invalidate a Mechitzah if there remains one solid Amah on both sides of each breach. Mid'Oraisa, such a breach is considered an entranceway (Pesach), but mid'Rabanan it is not.)

7a) [line 17] KANIM HA'DOKRANIM - spiked poles placed vertically into the ground
b) [line 18] PEI'AH MILMA'ALAH - braided vines which are strung between poles (at the top) to form a Tzuras ha'Pesach (see Background to Eruvin 6:7)


8) [line 16] MAKIFIN SHELOSHAH CHAVALIM - it is permissible to surround the enclosure with three ropes placed horizontally one above the other

9) [line 17] OVYAN - their thickness
10) [line 18] KANIM - reeds or poles placed vertically in the ground
11) [line 19] B'SHEYARA DIBRU - the Sages only permitted such an enclosure, with only vertical reeds or horizontal ropes as its Mechitzos, for a caravan

12) [line 20] BA'HOVEH - about the most common case, i.e. this is the usual way to make an enclosure around a caravan

13) [line 20] SHEL SHESI V'SHEL EREV - [a Mechitzah must have] a vertical and a horizontal part, e.g. posts and ropes

*14*) [line 22] HAREI AMRU - that is, in the Mishnah above
15) [line 22] OMED MERUBAH AL HA'PARUTZ - if the size of the solid parts of the enclosure are greater than the size of the open spaces

*16*) [line 26] HEICHAH MUKIM LEI - that is, according to Abaye, and according to Rav Hamnuna as well, how can one ever find an instance of Omed Merubah with a horizontal Mechitzah. (RASHI, RASHBA)

17) [line 27] TATAI - on the bottom

(a) The Torah requires Mechitzos (partitions) for various Halachos (e.g. for Reshus ha'Yachid of Shabbos and for Sukah). A Mechitzah must be ten Tefachim high and enclose an area of four by four Tefachim.
(b) One contingent necessary for a Kosher Mechitzah is that small goats cannot get under it. If goats can enter under it, the Mechitzah does not truly "enclose" the area inside of it, and is invalid.refore, a gap at the bottom of a Mechitzah that is larger than three Tefachim invalidates it. Any gap that is less than three Tefachim is considered filled in according to the Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai of Lavud (see Background to Eruvin 4:22).

*19*) [line 30] ELA RAV HAMNUNA HACHI KA MIBA'I LEI - (According to this and the following explanations of Rav Hamnuna's question, the question *cannot* be resolved through inference from our Mishnah.)

20) [line 36] BEIS SE'ASAYIM - a parcel of land in which two Se'ah of grain is normally planted, which is the area of the Azarah of the Mishkan, 50 by 100 Amos, approx. 1,152 square meters (12,400 square feet) or 1,659 square meters (17,856 square feet), depending upon the differing Halachic opinions

21) [line 48] BERAM - truly, however

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