THOUGHTS ON THE DAILY DAF
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1) HALACHAH: "HADACHAH" AND "KINU'ACH"
OPINIONS: The Gemara concludes that according to both Beis Shamai and Beis
Hillel in the Beraisa, one who wants to eat meat after eating cheese must
do both Kinu'ach (cleaning out the mouth by eating a piece of bread or any
other food that does not cling to the mouth) and Hadachah (rinsing out the
mouth with water or wine). What is the Halachah?
2) HALACHAH: HOW LONG DO WE WAIT TO EAT MILK AFTER MEAT
(a) TOSFOS (DH Mekane'ach) maintains that one must do both Kinu'ach and
Hadachah. This is also the view of the ROSH (8:5) and the RIF.
HALACHAH: The SHULCHAN ARUCH (YD 89:2) rules that one must do both
Kinu'ach and Hadachah when one wants to eat meat after eating cheese.
However, one does not need to do Kinu'ach and Hadachah in order to eat
fowl after cheese.
(b) The RAMBAM (Hilchos Ma'achalos Asuros 9:26) and the RASHBA maintain
that it suffices to do either Kinu'ach or Hadachah.
The BI'UR HA'GRA (YD 89:9) brings support to this opinion from the words
of the Gemara. In the Beraisa, Beis Shamai mentions only Kinu'ach, and
Beis Hillel mentions only Hadachah. This implies that either one is
sufficient, because if both were necessary, then Beis Shamai and Beis
Hillel would have each mentioned both Kinu'ach and Hadachah. Similarly,
Agra mentions only Kinu'ach and not Hadachah.
(The PISCHEI TESHUVAH cites the PRI TO'AR who rules that when eating a
piece of food in order to clean out the mouth, one must swallow the food,
and it does not suffice to chew it and spit it out (aside from the problem
of causing food to go to waste).)
The SHACH (89:11 and 13) points out that the order of the Kinu'ach and
Hadachah does not matter; one may first do Kinu'ach and then Hadachah, or
one may first do Hadachah and then Kinu'ach. However, the LEVUSH and
others (see DARCHEI TESHUVAH 89:28) maintain that Kinu'ach should be done
before Hadachah, so that the Hadachah will remove whatever particles might
be left after the Kinu'ach. The KENESES HA'GEDOLAH (in Hagahos to Tur,
#29) writes that while the Halachah is like the Shach that the order does
not matter, nevertheless it is proper to perform Kinu'ach before Hadachah.
OPINIONS: Mar Ukva said, "Compared to my father, I am like vinegar
compared to wine. When my father would eat meat today at this time, he
would not eat cheese until tomorrow at this time. I, though, wait only
until the next meal."
3) HALACHAH: HOW LONG DO WE WAIT TO EAT MEAT AFTER MILK
This Gemara is the source for the practice not to eat dairy foods
immediately after eating meat. However, the exact amount of time that one
must wait is not specified. Mar Ukva says only that he waits from one meal
to the next. There are a number of opinions regarding what is considered
the exact amount of time that passes from one meal to the next. Different
customs in different places have developed with regard to which opinion to
(a) The ROSH (end of 8:5) and RAMBAM (Hilchos Ma'achalos Asuros 9:28)
explain that the amount of time between meals is defined as the time that
passes between the regular morning meal and the regular evening meal that
people ordinarily eat. This amount of time is six hours, as the HAGAHOS
ASHIRI mentions. This is also the view of the RIF, RAN, RASHBA, and
MORDECHAI (8:687) in the name of the RA'AVYAH.
The BI'UR HA'GRA (YD 89:2) and LECHEM MISHNEH (Hilchos Ma'achalos Asuros
9:28) explain the basis for this number. The Gemara in Shabbos (11a) says
that a Talmid Chacham should eat his morning meal at the sixth hour of the
day. Since the evening meal is eaten at the end of the day (when the sun
sets; see Berachos 2b), the time between the morning meal and evening meal
is six hours.
HALACHAH: The SHULCHAN ARUCH (YD 89:1) rules like those Rishonim who
maintain that we must wait six hours between eating meat and milk. He
follows, l'Chumra, both the reason of Rashi and the reason of the Rambam,
and, therefore, one who chews meat without swallowing it must also wait
six hours (like the Rambam), while, on the other hand, one who ate meat
but has no meat between his teeth must also wait six hours (like Rashi).
There are two reasons given by the Rishonim for the necessity to wait
between meat and milk. RASHI (DH Asur le'Echol Gevinah) explains that one
must wait "because meat is fatty and its taste clings in the mouth and
The Rambam gives a different reason. He writes that one must wait "because
of the meat that remains between the teeth, which is not removed through
rinsing." According to the Rambam, only after six hours have passed is it
possible to ensure that there is no meat left between the teeth. (The
Rambam understands that when Rav Acha bar Yosef asks Rav Chisda, "What is
the Halachah with meat between the teeth," he is asking what the Halachah
is *within* six hours. Rav Chisda answers that such meat is still
considered meat. Only after six hours is meat between the teeth considered
to have been digested.
A practical difference between the reason of Rashi and the reason of the
Rambam is one who chews food but does not swallow it. The TUR writes that
according to Rashi, one who chews up meat to soften it for a baby may eat
milk afterwards without waiting, since the taste of meat remains in one's
mouth only when he swallows it. According to the Rambam, though, there is
still a concern that there is meat between the teeth, since the person
chewed it, and therefore he must wait six hours. (See Halachah below.)
(b) TOSFOS (DH l'Se'udasa) and RABEINU TAM (cited by Tosfos to 104b, DH
Of) explain that when Mar Ukva said that he waited until another meal to
eat milk, he was not giving a specific amount of time, but rather he meant
that he waited until he would start a new, separate meal, to eat milk,
even if the new meal began right away. As long as Kinu'ach and Hadachah
are done, and Birkas ha'Mazon (or a Berachah Acharonah) recited, one may
eat milk right away. Tosfos explains that when Rav Chisda says that it is
forbidden to eat cheese after eating meat, he is referring to a case in
which one did not do Kinu'ach and Hadachah.
(c) The REMA (YD 89:1) writes that "the widespread custom in these
countries is to wait one hour after eating meat." According to this
practice, too, one must recite Birkas ha'Mazon and do Kinu'ach and
Hadachah before eating milk (TAZ #2).
The BI'UR HA'GRA (#6) writes that the source for this opinion is the Zohar
(Parshas Mishpatim, page 125a), which discusses the severe punishment
given to "any person who eats these foods (meat and milk) together, or in
the same hour, or at the same meal." This implies that it is permitted to
eat milk after one hour has passed after eating meat. However, some
explain that the Zohar is referring to eating meat *after* milk when it
implies that an hour's wait suffices (according to this understanding of
the Zohar, the PRI TO'AR, PRI CHADASH, and others rule that one must wait
an hour after eating milk before eating meat, in contrast to the ruling of
the SHULCHAN ARUCH YD 89:2; see following Insight).
The REMA records the opinion of Tosfos and writes, "Some say that it is
not necessary to wait six hours, but rather immediately, if he has removed
[the food from the table] and recited Birkas ha'Mazon, it is permitted [to
eat dairy foods] by doing Kinu'ach and Hadachah." As mentioned above, the
Rema continues and writes that "the widespread custom in these countries
is to wait one hour after eating meat." However, he concludes that "there
are those who are careful to wait six hours after eating meat before
eating cheese, and this is the proper way to act." The SHACH (89:8) cites
the MAHARSHAL who also writes, "This is the proper way to act for anyone
who has within him the spirit of Torah."
The PRI MEGADIM (Sifsei Da'as 89:8) and ARUCH HA'SHULCHAN (89:7) write
that one who changes his custom to follow a more lenient custom is a
"Poretz Geder" (as mentioned in Mishlei 1:8 and 6:20). The CHOCHMAS ADAM
(40:13) writes that such a person is considered to be transgressing the
dictum, "Al Titosh Toras Imecha" (Koheles 10:8).
(The source for the custom of Jews of German descent to wait three hours
between meat and milk is not clear, although various suggestions are
offered to explain how it developed. (This custom is mentioned by the
CHAYEI ADAM (who lived in Germany) in Hilchos Pesach (127:10), when he
discusses the issue of changing one's practice of waiting six hours to a
more lenient practice of waiting "a few hours" due to necessity of
There are a number of details discussed by the Poskim regarding the
requirement to wait six hours between meat and milk.
1. The MAHARSHAL (in YAM SHEL SHLOMO to Chulin 8:9) cited by the TAZ
(89:2) and SHACH (89:5) rules that not only must one wait six hours, but
one must recite Birkas ha'Mazon (or, if one did not have bread at his meat
meal, a Berachah Acharonah) after the meat meal. If one did not recite a
Berachah Acharonah, then he may not eat milk even if the entire day passes
(the following day, however, he may eat milk). This is also the ruling of
the PRI MEGADIM (Sifsei Da'as 89:5) and MAGEN AVRAHAM (end of OC 196:1).
2. The Poskim discuss whether the six hours that one must wait are counted
from the end of the person's meat meal (even if he has not eaten meat
during the meal for a long time) until the beginning of a person's milk
meal, or from the time that he stops eating meat until the time that he
begins to eat milk. The DAGUL MEREVAVAH proves that the six hours are
counted from the time that one stops eating meat, even though the meal has
not ended. The ARUCH HA'SHULCHAN (89:4), however, rules that the six hours
must be counted from the moment that the meat meal ends (even if one has
not eaten meat for a long time) until the moment that the milk meal begins
(even if one will not eat milk until later on in the meal). In practice,
some follow the view of the Dagul Merevavah, while others follow the more
stringent view of the Aruch ha'Shulchan.
3. Must one wait a full six hours, or does it suffice to wait five hours
and a majority of the sixth hour? Some infer from the wording of the
Rambam, who writes that one must wait "k'Shesh Sha'os" -- "*like* six
hours" -- that it suffices to wait five hours and a majority of the sixth.
However, the other Rishonim write that one must wait "Shesh Sha'os," which
implies six full hours. This is also the wording of the Rashba when he
quotes the opinion of the Rambam.
RAV OVADIA YOSEF shlit'a, in YABI'A OMER (YD 1:4) rules that one may rely
on five hours and a majority when eating milk after poultry, but not after
meat. Others relate in the name of RAV AHARON KOTLER zt'l that he allowed
eating milk after five and a half hours, while others quote RAV MOSHE
FEINSTEIN zt'l who said that in extenuating circumstances, one may eat
milk after five and three quarter hours. However, the accepted practice is
to wait six full hours (see DARCHEI TESHUVAH 89:6).
4. The Poskim also discuss whether the six hours that one must wait are
Halachic hours ("Sha'os Zemaniyos," or "variable hours," which are
calculated by dividing the length of time from sunrise to sunset by
twelve), or are ordinary hours (of sixty minutes). The PRI CHADASH (89:6)
asserts that they are Halachic hours, as he proves from the wording of Mar
Ukva who would wait "until the next meal" to eat milk, which implies that
in the winter he would wait a shorter period of time (since he ate the
evening meal earlier), while in the summer he would wait a longer period
of time (since he ate the evening meal later). Most Acharonim (cited by
the PISCHEI TESHUVAH 89:2) reject the view of the Pri Chadash. The PRI
MEGADIM (Mishbetzos Zahav 89:1) argues that it does not make sense that
one must wait a shorter amount of time in the winter between meat and milk
than one must wait in the summer. However, the YAD EFRAIM (89:1) concludes
that in the case of a sick person who needs to eat milk (and perhaps also
for a child when necessary), one may rely on the Pri Chadash and wait, in
the winter, only six Halachic hours.
OPINIONS: Rav Chisda states that one who ate cheese is permitted to eat
meat right away and he does not have to wait. Is this the Halachah?
4) AGADAH: INSPECTING OUR REAL PROPERTY
(a) The SHULCHAN ARUCH (YD 89:2) rules that one may eat meat immediately
after eating cheese, as long as he ensures that there are no particles of
cheese on his hands, as the Gemara earlier (104b) teaches. During the day,
one may examine his hands, but at night, when it is dark, he must wash his
hands before eating meat. In addition, one must do Kinu'ach and Hadachah
before eating meat (see above, Insight #1).
The TUR (cited by the SHACH #9) writes that even during the day, one must
wash his hands after eating a dairy food, because there might be some food
left on his hands that he does not notice. This is the common practice
The Shulchan Aruch adds that this applies only to eating *meat* (of an
animal) after cheese. One who wants to eat *poultry* after cheese may do
so without Kinu'ach and without washing his hands.
The RASHASH (Chulin 103a) writes that one who merely drinks a glass of
milk does not need to do both Kinu'ach and Hadachah. It suffices to do
merely Hadachah. This is also implied by the words of the RAMBAM (Hilchos
Ma'achalos Asuros 9:26), who writes that "one who ate cheese or milk" must
wash his hands and wash out his mouth before eating meat. When the Rambam
mentions "milk" is referring to a dairy *food* item, and not to a drink of
milk, because otherwise he would have discussed "one who ate cheese or
*drank* milk." This implies that one who drinks milk does not need to wash
out his mouth with Kinu'ach, and he does not have to wash his hands (if no
milk spilled on them).
(b) The REMA writes that there are those who are stringent to wait six
hours even after eating cheese before eating meat. This practice is based
on the words of the MAHARAM MI'ROTENBURG, cited by the MORDECHAI (8:687)
and HAGAHOS ASHIRI, who decreed upon himself not to eat meat after cheese
until six hours have passed, due to an incident in which he found cheese
between his teeth while eating a meat meal.
The Rema in DARCHEI TESHUVAH writes that this stringency applies only to
"hard" cheese (see Shach #15, Taz #4), and this is the way he rules in the
Shulchan Aruch. One who eats "soft" cheese and other dairy products may
eat meat right away, as long as he fulfills the necessary conditions
(washing his hands, Kinu'ach and Hadachah).
(c) As mentioned above (see previous Insight), some Poskim understand the
Zohar (Parshas Mishpatim, page 125a, cited by the BI'UR HA'GRA #6) to be
prohibiting eating meat immediately after cheese. The Zohar discusses the
severe punishment given to "any person who eats these foods (meat and
milk) together, or in the same hour, or at the same meal." The PRI TO'AR,
PRI CHADASH, and others understand that the Zohar means that it is
prohibited to eat meat within an hour of eating cheese.
However, the BEIS YOSEF (OC 173) quotes the Zohar, and says that some
people are stringent not to eat meat after cheese *at the same meal*, but
rather to end the dairy meal (with Birkas ha'Mazon or a Berachah
Acharonah) and begin a new meal. The Beis Yosef understands that the Zohar
is not teaching that one must wait an hour between cheese and meat, but
rather that cheese and meat may not be eaten at the same meal.
QUESTION: Shmuel says, "Compared to my father, I am like vinegar compared
to wine. My father would inspect his fields twice a day, while I inspect
them only once." The Gemara says that Shmuel is following his own opinion
that one who inspects his property every day will find an "Istira" (a
silver coin). RASHI (DH Mishkach) explains that this means that inspecting
one's property preserves its value as though one finds an Istira, since he
finds what needs repair.
The Gemara relates that Abaye would inspect his property every day. One
day he caught his tenant farmer carrying away a pile of wood, attempting
to steal the wood from Abaye (Rashi). Abaye asked him where he was taking
the wood, and the farmer replied that he was taking it to Abaye's home.
Abaye said that the Rabanan have already warned us about this when they
taught that a person should inspect his property every day in order to see
what needs to be done.
5) "MAYIM RISHONIM" AND "MAYIM ACHARONIM"
Why is the Gemara telling us the importance of inspecting one's property?
Is it merely giving us basic advice for managing one's finances, or is it
teaching us a deeper lesson? Moreover, why did Shmuel find this a reason
to say that he was like "vinegar compared to wine" when compared to his
ANSWER: The CHAFETZ CHAIM (in SEFER SHEM OLAM, Sha'ar Hachzakas ha'Torah,
chapter 11, p. 45) explains that the Gemara is alluding to a person's
*spiritual* possessions, which is his only real and everlasting property.
A person must inspect those possessions daily. One who inspects his
spiritual possessions will find that he is lacking in fear of Hashem; one
tends to be more worried about losing money than in not having the proper
intention in prayer, or when uttering the Name of Hashem. One will find
that he does not utilize his spare time property for studying Torah.
Because of the way that the Yetzer ha'Ra confounds us, we often forget the
true purpose for which we were created. (See also Insights to Berachos
The only way to overcome the tactics of the Yetzer ha'Ra is to set aside
time each day, or at least each week, to sit alone in a room and set aside
all of our worldly concerns, in order to inspect our souls and to think of
ways in which we can improve ourselves. We must scrutinize our actions of
every moment of our lives. Even if we did something good, we must
determine whether we did it for the sake of the honor of Hashem, or merely
to enhance our own prestige.
This is the meaning of Shmuel's statement that, compared to his father, he
is like vinegar compared to wine. Shmuel's father was a great Tzadik who
contemplated the state of his soul and his spiritual accomplishments every
day. He inspected his soul once in the middle of the day to determine
whether or not he had properly fulfilled his acceptance of the yoke of
Mitzvos that he had accepted upon himself early in the morning, and he
inspected his soul a second time at night, before retiring. His son,
Shmuel, made such an inspection only once a day. When Shmuel said that one
who surveys his property every day will find a silver coin, he meant that
when one examines his deeds he will certainly find things that need
improving and will do whatever it takes to make those improvements.
Abaye used to inspect his soul every day, but because he was a very holy
Tzadik (so holy that he received a greeting from Shamayim every Erev
Shabbos, as the Gemara in Ta'anis (21b) relates), he could not find
anything that needed repairing. When the Gemara says that he found his
tenant farmer carrying away wood, this means that he found his Yetzer
ha'Ra bringing the bundle to Abaye. Abaye understood that his Yetzer ha'Ra
was planning a way to trap Abaye, so he asked the Yetzer ha'Ra why he
wanted to do this. The Yetzer ha'Ra replied that he was doing it for
Abaye's own benefit; that is, as the Yetzer ha'Ra often does, he tried to
convince Abaye that Abaye would be doing a Mitzvah by listening to him.
Abaye knew how to answer the Yetzer ha'Ra: "The Rabanan have already
taught us that we must constantly work on ways to defeat the Yetzer
ha'Ra." By making his daily inspection of his soul, Abaye was able to
understand how to defeat his Yetzer ha'Ra. (D. Bloom)
QUESTION: Rav Idi bar Avin says in the name of Rav Yitzchak bar Ashyan
that "Mayim Rishonim is a Mitzvah," while Mayim "Acharonim is a Chovah."
What is the difference between a "Chovah" and a "Mitzvah"?
(a) RASHI (DH Chovah) explains that a "Chovah" is a stronger form of
obligation than a "Mitzvah." In what way is it a stronger obligation?
TOSFOS (DH Mayim) explains that Jewish soldiers fighting in a Milchemes
Reshus, a discretionary war, are not obligated to wash their hands with
Mayim Rishonim, but they are obligated to wash with Mayim Acharonim, as
the Mishnah in Eruvin (17a) teaches.
(b) Tosfos quotes the BEHAG who writes that a "Chovah" is a *lesser* form
of obligation that a "Mitzvah." One is required to wash with Mayim
Acharonim only in order to prevent harm from Sedomis-salt. For that
reason, no blessing is recited upon washing Mayim Acharonim. In contrast,
Mayim Rishonim was instituted because of the requirement to be Tahor when
eating Terumah, and therefore a Berachah is recited on it. (Z. Wainstein)
(Regarding the obligation to wash with Mayim Acharonim today, see Insights
to Eruvin 17:1.)
6) WASHING BETWEEN DISHES DURING A MEAL
QUESTION: Rav Nachman states that when the Beraisa says that washing with
Mayim Emtza'im is optional, it means that it is optional only between one
cooked dish of meat (Tavshil) and another, but it is obligatory to wash
between a cooked dish of meat and a dish of cheese.
7) USING THE HOLY NAME
Why does it suffice to wash one's hands after eating a dish of meat before
eating a dish of cheese? The Gemara earlier (105a) teaches that it is
forbidden to eat cheese immediately after eating meat!
(a) TOSFOS (DH Lo Shanu) quotes RABEINU SHMUEL who explains that between
two meat dishes, or between two milk dishes, washing one's hands is
optional. The obligation to wash Mayim Emtza'im applies when one wants to
eat a meat dish after a milk dish. When one wants to eat a milk dish after
a meat dish, however, it does not suffice to wash one's hands, but rather
one must wait until the next meal, as the Gemara (105a) says.
(b) RABEINU TAM explains that when Rav Nachman mentions a "Tavshil," he is
referring to a cooked dish *mixed* with meat, or with milk, such that the
meat or milk in the dish is not recognizable. Between eating a dish cooked
with milk (in which the milk is not recognizable) and a dish cooked with
meat, washing the hands is optional. If, however, the dairy dish is made
entirely of milk products such that the milk is recognizable, then one
*must* wash after eating the meat dish before eating the milk dish.
(Rabeinu Tam is following his own opinion (see above, Insights #2:b) that
one is not required to wait any amount of time between meat and milk.)
OPINIONS: Rav Chisda and Rabah bar Rav Huna said "something" in order to
undo the witchcraft of the woman who cast a spell on their ship. What was
it that they said?
RASHI (DH Amrei) offers two explanations. First, he says that they
countered her spell by using their knowledge of witchcraft. Alternatively,
he says that they uttered the Holy Name of Hashem.
Regarding the second possibility, Rashi comments, "it cannot be proven"
("v'Lo Muchecha Milsa"; see ROSH YOSEF). It seems from Rashi as though the
second suggestion is unlikely and needs support. Why is that?
(a) In AVOS D'REBBI NASAN (12:13), we are taught that the expression
"d'Ishtamesh b'Taga Chalaf" (Avos 1:13) means that one who uses the Holy
Name will have no share in the World to Come. This interpretation is
quoted by the REMA in Shulchan Aruch (YD 246:21). Accordingly, it is very
unlikely that the Amora'im would have used the Holy Name. (Even though the
Gemara in Sanhedrin (67b) relates that when Rebbi Yochanan and Reish
Lakish learned the Sefer Yetzirah, a calf was created, RASHI there
explains that the calf came about by itself and was not created
intentionally through the use of the Holy Name.)
HALACHAH: The SHACH (YD 179:18), quoting the LEVUSH, states that since it
is almost impossible to be on the proper level of Kedushah and Taharah
that is necessary in order to use the Holy Name, we should refrain from
using it except under dire circumstances.
(b) In Shabbos (81b), Rashi explains that the Amora'im used a "Shem
Taharah" (a Name of Purity) to move the boat. This is consistent with the
opinion of the REMA (YD 179:15) who permits the use of the Holy Name to
perform miracles. In fact, "one who performs miracles with Hashem's Holy
Name demonstrates the greatness and mightiness of the Creator" (LEVUSH,
ibid.). According to the Rema, the statement of Avos d'Rebbi Nasan
apparently applies only to those who are not on the appropriate level of
holiness when they use the Holy Name. (It is possible that when Rashi in
Shabbos uses the words "Shem Taharah" instead of the more common term,
"Shem Kodesh," to refer to the Holy Name, he is not referring at all to
the Holy Name, but rather he is expressing a euphemism for "Shem Tum'ah,"
a name of impurity used to perform sorcery. Accordingly, Rashi's
explanation in Shabbos is consistent with what he writes in Chulin.)