THOUGHTS ON THE DAILY DAF
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Rosh Kollel: Rav Mordecai Kornfeld
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CHULIN 81-84 - Sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor.
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1) LEARNING A LAW FROM "CHAYAH" TO "OF"
QUESTION: Mar bar Rav Ashi derives from the verse, "Chayah O Of" (Vayikra
17:13), that just as Kisuy ha'Dam is required for a Chayah which cannot be
brought as a Korban, so, too, Kisuy ha'Dam is required only for a bird that
is not Kadosh.
2) EATING MEAT FROM "EREV SHABBOS" TO "EREV SHABBOS"
Mar bar Rav Ashi's teaching is difficult to understand. There is a rule that
"Ein Danin Efshar mishe'Iy Efshar" -- "we cannot derive something that is
possible from something that is not possible." Since it is not possible to
offer a Chayah as a Korban, while it is possible to offer a bird as a
Korban, how can we learn from Chayah that only a bird that is not Kadosh
requires Kisuy ha'Dam?
(a) The RITVA in Makos (5a, DH Amar Abaye and DH Rava) explains that Rava
and Abaye argue there whether the principle of "Ein Danin Efshar mishe'Iy
Efshar" applies when deriving a law through a Binyan Av, or when deriving a
law through a Gezeirah Shavah or Hekesh. If Mar bar Rav Ashi follows the
view of Abaye, who says that this principle applies only to a Binyan Av,
then there is no question on his teaching here, since his teaching here is
based on a Hekesh.
(b) In addition, the only Halachah that is learned through this Hekesh is
that Kisuy ha'Dam is not done for birds of Kodshim. Since no other law is
learned through this Hekesh, the principle of "Ein Danin Efshar mishe'Iy
Efshar" does not apply, because if it applied here then the Hekesh would not
be teaching us anything. (Z. Wainstein)
QUESTION: Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah discusses how people of various means
should use their money. He says that a person with ten Maneh should buy
fish, and a person with fifty Maneh should buy meat. The Gemara asks how
often should a person with ten Maneh eat fish, and how often should a person
with fifty Maneh eat meat, and it answers that they should eat them once a
week, "from Erev Shabbos to Erev Shabbos."
Why does the Gemara recommend eating meat once a week on Erev Shabbos, and
not on Shabbos itself? There is a Mitzvah to enjoy Shabbos by having nice
meals, while having a large meal on Erev Shabbos is considered to be a
disgrace to Shabbos!
ANSWER: "Erev Shabbos" in this context means "the evening of Shabbos," and
it refers to the evening meal on Shabbos night. The Gemara does not state
simply "Shabbos," because we might have thought that meat should be eaten
during the morning meal on Shabbos day. Indeed, the Gemara in Pesachim
(105a) teaches that the morning meal is supposed to be the largest of the
Shabbos meals. The Gemara is teaching that with regard to eating meat,
however, this is not the case. As the Gemara in Yoma (75b) teaches, it is
proper to eat meat at night and not during the day. (M. Kornfeld)
3) PROVIDING FOR ONE'S WIFE AND CHILDREN BEYOND ONE'S MEANS
QUESTION: The Gemara quotes the verse, "Good is a gracious man who lends,
who manages his matters with justice" (Tehilim 112:5). Rav Avira says in the
name of Rebbi Ami (or Rebbi Asi) that this means that "a man should eat food
less than his income dictates, he should clothe himself according to his
income, and he should honor his wife and children more than his income
dictates, for they depend on him, and he depends on Hashem."
What is the basis of this reasoning? It seems more reasonable that one
should fulfill the needs of his family simply because their needs are so
vital that one should even risk poverty to fulfill them. What does the
Gemara mean when it says that "they depend on him, and he depends on
Hashem"? Why should the fact that they depend on him be reason for him to go
beyond his financial ability to provide for them?
ANSWER: RAV CHAIM SHMUELEVITZ zt'l in SICHOS MUSAR (5732, #26) explains this
based on a fundamental principle in Emunah. One's family's trust and
reliance on him actually gives him the power to provide for them. Therefore,
he should honor them beyond his means, because there is no limit to his
means; according to their trust in him will be his ability to provide for
Rav Chaim derives this principle from the Gemara in Ta'anis (8a), which
demonstrates the greatness of Ba'alei Amanah, people who put their trust in
Hashem and rely on Him to bring ultimate justice, from the story of two
people who guaranteed their trust using a weasel and a pit. Tosfos there
relates that a young man once rescued a young woman from a pit on the
condition that she marry him. She agreed, and they each swore to the
commitment. However, no one else was there to witness the vows. The woman
asked him upon what could she rely that he would be true to his word. At
that moment, a weasel passed by the pit. The young man answered that the
weasel and the pit would be his witnesses and trustees. They went their
separate ways, and, years later, the man violated his trust and married
another woman. She bore him two sons, who met their death under unusual
circumstances: one was killed by a weasel and the other fell into a pit and
died. When his wife remarked about the strange occurrences, he remembered
his vow and related the story to his wife, who urged him to divorce her and
to marry the first woman.
Rav Chaim points out that we see from there that one who puts his trust in
something, even in an inanimate object, can rely on that thing. This is
because the person's reliance empowers the trustee with the ability to
fulfill the trust.
Therefore, one should honor his wife and children more than his means allow.
With regard to his own needs, though, he must stay within his means, because
one cannot be sure that Hashem will give him more. In contrast, since one's
family trusts him completely, he will have the ability to give them all of
their needs, and if he is concerned from where he will have the means to do
so, he should know that "he depends on Hashem" and Hashem will help him.
(Mordechai Zvi Dicker)