THOUGHTS ON THE DAILY DAF
brought to you by Kollel Iyun Hadaf of Har Nof
Rosh Kollel: Rav Mordecai Kornfeld
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CHULIN 47-50 - sponsored by Dr. Lindsay A. Rosenwald of Lawrence NY, in
honor of his father, David ben Aharon ha'Levy Rosenwald of blessed memory.
1) AN ANIMAL WITH AN EXTRA LOBE ON THE LUNG
OPINIONS: Rava states that the lungs are comprised of five small, upper
(cranial) lobes (in addition to the two large, lower (caudal) lobes) --
three on the right side of the animal, and two on the left side of the
animal. Rava rules that if the animal has an extra lobe ("Una"), then the
animal is a Tereifah. Mereimar argues and rules that as long as the extra
lobe is in line with the other lobes, the animal is Kosher. Only when the
extra lobe is out of line with the other lobes ("Beini Beini") is the
animal Tereifah. RASHI writes that an example of an extra lobe that is out
of line with the other lobes is the "Inonisa d'Varda," the small
(intermediate) lobe that is nearly centered on the underside of the lungs,
between the two large, lower lobes.
The Gemara continues with a case of an extra lobe that was "Beini Beini"
that came before Rav Ashi. Rav Ashi initially wanted to pronounce the
animal a Tereifah, but Rav Huna bar Avya argued that all animals that are
"Beriyasa" (that graze outside ("Bara"), or that are healthy and fat
("Bari"); see RASHI) all have such an extra lobe. It is called the
"Inonisa d'Varda" because it is a small lobe that resembles a rose.
What type of lobe constitutes an extra lobe that is "Beini Beini" and that
renders the animal a Tereifah?
(a) TOSFOS (DH Kol) writes that since the Inonisa d'Varda is not a sign of
a Tereifah, the type of extra lobe that is "Beini Beini" and that renders
the animal a Tereifah must be a lobe that is very large and is not similar
to the Inonisa d'Varda.
The RASHBA writes that if the Inonisa is as big as the other lobes, the
animal is a Tereifah, because the nature of the Inonisa is to be small.
The SHACH (YD 35:9) cites the YAM SHEL SHLOMO who rules that even if the
Inonisa is only as large as the middle lobe on the right side (the middle
right cranial lobe), which is the smallest of the five upper lobes, then
the animal is a Tereifah because it is no longer similar to an Inonisa.
The Shach adds that this also seems to be the opinion of the REMA (YD
35:2) who states simply that if the Inonisa's form differs from its usual
form, then the animal is a Tereifah.
(b) RASHI (DH Afilu) writes that most of the animals of his time possessed
an Inonisa, and thus any animal that has one is certainly Kosher. However,
even in Rashi's time, if the lung did not possess an Inonisa, the animal
was still Kosher (as in the time of the Gemara). Rashi also writes that he
heard from his teacher that the Gedolei ha'Dor (Rebbi Yehudah ben Rebbi
Baruch and his colleagues) had a dispute concerning an animal that has two
Inonisas. Rashi's teacher did not relate to him his opinion on this,
though. Rashi himself writes that his own opinion is that the animal is a
Tereifah, because it is an extra lobe out of line of the other lobes. The
Gemara permits an animal that has even one Inonisa only because all
animals that graze outside (or that are healthy) possess one. Since it is
uncommon for an animal to possess two Inonisas, such an animal is a
(c) Tosfos cites RABEINU EFRAIM who maintains that an animal that
possesses two Inonisas is Kosher, but if it possesses *no* Inonisa it is a
Tereifah (this is the opposite of Rashi's view). Rabeinu Efraim's
reasoning is that since all animals of his time (even though that did not
graze outside) possessed an Inonisa, it could not be that Rav Ashi
considered such an animal to be a Tereifah. Rather, Rav Huna bar Avya must
have meant that animals that graze outside have *two* Inonisas, and thus
all animals that have two Inonisas are Kosher. Consequently, an animal
that has no Inonisa is a Tereifah according to Rabeinu Efraim, because
domesticated animals possess at least one, but no animals possess none.
Tosfos disagrees with Rabeinu Efraim (see also TOSFOS HA'ROSH). Tosfos
asserts that animals of modern times are not comparable to animals of the
time of the Gemara, because the natural world has changed in a number of
ways (see REMA EH 156:4). Tosfos understands that animals that grazed
outside in the time of the Gemara possessed one Inonisa, while
domesticated animals possessed none. Therefore, Tosfos writes that the
practice follows the opinion of Rashi.
However, the REMA (YD 35:2) states that the practice is to prohibit both
an animal that has two Inonisas and an animal that possesses none. (D.
2) A LUNG THAT IS MISSING A "REVI'IS" OF FLESH
OPINIONS: Rav Nachman rules that an animal whose lung withered is still
Kosher as long as the membrane is intact. RASHI (DH Nimokah) explains that
the lung's flesh liquefied and emptied out, but it was not full of fluid
like a bottle (in which case the lung would be Tereifah, as the Gemara
earlier says; see Insights to 45b). Rather, in one part of the inside of
the lung nothing remained. The Gemara cites a Beraisa to support Rav
Nachman's ruling. The Beraisa states that when a lung becomes empty but
its membrane is intact, the animal is Kosher even if the hollow part can
contain a Revi'is.
What is the Halachah if the hollow part is larger than the volume of a
Revi'is? Does the Beraisa mean to say that the animal is Kosher only when
the missing part of the lung is not larger than a Revi'is, or does the
Beraisa mean that when the missing part is very large, it is Kosher (and
the "Revi'is" that it mentions is an exaggeration)?
(a) The RASHBA (cited by the TAZ YD 36:14) who argues and rules that the
animal is permitted even when more than a Revi'is of the inside of the
lung is missing. The KEREISI U'PLEISI infers from the words of the RAMBAM
that he, too, maintains that such an animal is Kosher. When the Beraisa
says that the animal is Kosher "even when it (the missing part of the
lung) can hold a Revi'is," it mentions a Revi'is only to emphasize that
the animal is Kosher even when a very large amount of the lung is missing.
(b) The REMA (YD 36:8) writes, "When some flesh inside the lung is
missing, even if the missing part has the volume of a Revi'is, the animal
is Kosher. However, if more than a Revi'is is missing, then the animal is
a Tereifah." The Rema clearly learns that the Beraisa means that only when
the missing part of the lung is less than a Revi'is is the animal Kosher.
The stringent opinion cited by the Rema infers from the fact that the
Gemara mentions a Revi'is that a lung missing more than a Revi'is renders
the animal a Tereifah. (The Taz disagrees with this inference and says
that since Rav Nachman is an Amora, he is required to explain his
intention more extensively than a Tana is required to explain. Therefore,
if Rav Nachman meant that when more than a Revi'is is missing the animal
is a Tereifah, then he should have stated this explicitly.)
It is evident that RASHI agrees with the stringent ruling. Rashi (DH
Afilu) explains that the part of the lung in which the flesh is missing
has the volume of a Revi'is of a Log. Why does Rashi tell us that the
Revi'is mentioned in the Gemara refers to a Revi'is of a Log? Whenever the
Gemara mentions a Revi'is without specifying the specific measure, it
refers to a Revi'is of a Log, as Rashi himself writes in a number of
places (see Shabbos 77a, DH Tanina)! It must be that Rashi is emphasizing
that when the Beraisa mentions a Revi'is, it is mentioning a specific
volume (and it does not mean any large amount). Rashi therefore tells us
that this specific Revi'is is a Revi'is of a Log, so that we will know
that anything more renders the animal a Tereifah. (D. Bloom)