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Chulin 133

*********************GIRSA SECTION*********************
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the
marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any *OTHER*
important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi
and Tosfos

[1] Gemara 133a [line 4]:
The words "*v'Chol* Kohen"
should be "*Kol* Kohen," as it appears in Menachos 18a

1) [line 1] KABALOS - collecting the blood of the Korbanos that will be cast on the Mizbe'ach

2) [line 1] HAZA'OS - (lit. sprinkling) casting the blood of the Korbanos on the Mizbe'ach

See Background to Chulin 88:28.

4) [line 2] EGLAH ARUFAH
See Background to Chulin 81:13.

See Background to Menachos 48:26.

6) [line 2] NESI'AS KAPAYIM - (lit. raising the hands) to administer the Birkas Kohanim (BIRKAS KOHANIM)
The Kohanim are required to bless the people with the three-fold blessing, as described in Bamidbar 6:22-27. (The Gemara (Menachos 44a) refers to the three verses as three separate Mitzvos Aseh.) In the Beis ha'Mikdash the blessing was said with the Shem ha'Meforash (the Tetragrammaton, the Holy Name of HaSh-m). According to TOSFOS to Sotah 38a DH Harei Hu Omer, this is only true when there is Giluy Shechinah in the Beis ha'Mikdash. Since there was no Giluy Shechinah after the passing of Shimon ha'Tzadik, the Kohanim stopping saying Birkas Kohanim with the Shem ha'Meforash.

7) [line 8] CHUTIN SHEB'LECHI - the blood vessels of the neck that are embedded in the Lechayayim

8) [line 10] TIVYA - roasted
9) [line 10] MEIDAV DAIVI - [the blood] flows out of it
10) [line 10] L'KEDERAH - (lit. for the pot) boiled
11) [line 11] MICHTACH LEHU U'MALACH LEHU - cuts them into sections and salts them to Kasher them

12) [line 12] BADAK LAN RAV YOSEF - Rav Yosef tested us
13) [line 12] D'CHATIF - who grabs away
14a) [line 21] HA'TZENU'IM - the modest (well-mannered) Kohanim
b) [line 21] MOSHCHIN ES YEDEIHEM - they withdraw their hands [from taking a portion of the Lechem ha'Panim

(a) The Lechem ha'Panim (showbread) is an offering of 12 loaves (that are Matzah), which are arranged in two Sedarim (stacks), six loaves to each Seder, on the Shulchan ha'Zahav (Golden Table) of the Mishkan or Beis ha'Mikdash. Fresh loaves were arranged on the Shulchan every Shabbos and are left there until the following Shabbos. The Kohanim eat the loaves that are removed (Vayikra 24:5-9), half being given to the Kohen Gadol (learned from the word "l'Aharon") and half to the other Kohanim (from "l'Vanav"). A Kometz of Levonah is placed alongside each stack in a Bazach (bowl). After the loaves are removed, the Levonah is salted and burned on the Mizbe'ach. The offering of the Levonah permits the loaves to be eaten.
(b) Each loaf of the Lechem ha'Panim was ten Tefachim long, and its length was laid along the width of the Shulchan. The Tana'im argue (Menachos 96a) as to whether the measurements of the Shulchan (two Amos long by one Amah wide by one and one half Amos high -- Shemos 25:23) were measured with five-Tefach Amos or six-Tefach Amos. As such, the extra length of the loaves was either four Tefachim or five Tefachim, where four Tefachim necessitated folding two Tefachim on each side of each loaf, and five Tefachim necessitated folding two and one half Tefachim on each side of each loaf (see Graphics to Menachos 94 for the Sugya of the Lechem ha'Panim).

15) [line 22] MA'ALEI YOMA D'CHIPUREI - Erev Yom ha'Kipurim (when there is a special Mitzvah to eat before the fast)

16) [line 22] L'ACHZUKEI NAFSHAI B'CHAHANEI - to uphold my standing as a Kohen

17) [line 23] V'LIFROS YADEI - let him spread out his hands and say Birkas Kohanim (see above, entry #6) [to prove that he is a Kohen]

18) [line 23] ANSEI LEI IDNEI - he was unable to perform the Birkas Kohanim since (a) he had intestinal troubles at the time of the Birkas Kohanim (RIF); (b) the time he set for learning with his students coincided with the time for saying Birkas Kohanim (RASHI)

19) [line 24] TZURBA ME'RABANAN - a Talmid Chacham (RAMBAM Hilchos Sanhedrin 21:4, SHULCHAN ARUCH Choshen Mishpat 17:2)

20) [line 24] B'SHIVEVUSEI - in his neighborhood
21) [line 24] DACHIKA LEI MILSA - he is very poor
22) [line 25] MAKAREI KEHUNAH U'LEVIYAH - Kohanim and Leviyim to whom the people are acquainted and to whom the people always give their tithes; i.e. the landowner is in the habit of giving this Kohen the Matnos Kehunah of his produce

23) [line 27] IGLA TILTA - (a) a third-grown calf (that has reached one-third of its full growth and is particularly tasty) (RASHI to Eruvin 63a); (b) a calf that has reached one-third of its expected *lifespan*, at which time it has reached its *full* growth (RASHI to Sanhedrin 65b); (c) a calf that is a cow's third offspring which is well developed and fat (RASHI ibid., and to Shabbos 11a, Pesachim 68b, Megilah 7a); (d) a calf that is healthy and good to eat (TOSFOS to Gitin 56a). See Insights to Shabbos 136a

24) [line 27] L'SHAM'EI - to the attendant of the host (who was a Kohen)
25) [line 28] AKARYUHA L'RAV SAFRA B'CHELMA - in a dream, the following verse was read to Rav Safra

26) [line 29] "MA'ADEH BEGED B'YOM KARAH, CHOMETZ AL NASAR, V'SHAR BA'SHIRIM AL LEV RA." - "Like one who takes off a garment on a cold day, and like vinegar on nitre, is he who sings to a heavy heart." (Mishlei 25:20)

27) [line 33] NAZUF HAVAH - he was rebuked, placed under a ban (a lower degree of excommunication. For a discussion of excommunication, see Background to Chulin 132:20)

28) [line 35] "KOL CHOSHECH TAMUN LI'TZEFUNAV, TE'ACHLEHU ESH LO NUPACH, YERA SARID B'AHOLO." - "All types of troubles will be covered up in places hidden from him; a fire not blown [by a bellows] (the fire of Gehinom) shall consume him; harm will befall those left in his tent." (Iyov 20:26) - The Gemara interprets the end of the verse to mean that the "Sarid," i.e. the Talmid Chacham, will suffer the troubles mentioned at the beginning of the verse because "Yera b'Aholo," he left evil in his tent, i.e. he permitted a wicked student to remain in his Beis Midrash (MAHARSHA).

29) [line 37] "... UVA'SERIDIM ASHER HASH-M KOREI." - "[And it shall come to pass, that whoever shall call on the Name of HaSh-m shall be saved; for in Har Tziyon and in Yerushalayim there shall be those who escape, as HaSh-m has said,] and among the remnant those whom HaSh-m shall call." (Yoel 3:5) - According to the interpretation of this verse by our Gemara, HaSh-m will call upon the Talmidei Chachamim who will be saved.

30) [line 38] MARKULIS - the Roman God Mercury, identified with the Norse god Wodin, worshipped by throwing stones at the Markulis Gadol or removing stones from in front of it (Rambam Hilchos Avodas Kochavim 3:2). The Markulis Gadol was a structure of three stones, two set next to each other and the third on top of the first two. (But compare Audio Shiur to Avodah Zarah 50: Archeology and Avodah Zarah, for differing opinions.)

31) [line 38] "KI'TZEROR EVEN B'MARGEMAH, KEN NOSEN LI'CHESIL KAVOD." - "As one who loads a stone into a sling, so is he who gives honor to a fool." (Mishlei 26:8) - The Gemara interprets this verse as "As one who has thrown a [precious] stone into a rock-pile, so is he who teaches Torah to a wicked student" (see RALBAG to Mishlei ibid.)

32) [line 39] "LO NAVEH LI'CHESIL TA'ANUG" - "Luxury is not seemly for a fool" (Mishlei 19:10)

33) [last line] PESULEI HA'MUKDASHIN - [those who sell] Pesulei ha'Mukdashin [that have been redeemed] (PESULEI HA'MUKDASHIN)
(a) Pesulei ha'Mukdashin are Korbanos that became unfit to be offered upon the Mizbe'ach because of a Mum (blemish). After they are redeemed, it is still forbidden to work with them ("Avodah") or to shear them ("Gizah"). The milk they produce is also forbidden. They are only permitted to be eaten after being slaughtered (Bechoros 15b).
(b) The Mishnah in Bechoros (5:1) states that Pesulei ha'Mukdashin may be sold in the marketplace and weighed with a Roman Libra, a pound. These acts are normally considered unfitting for Kodshim, and are prohibited to be done to a Bechor (see Background to Chulin 130:8).
(c) Pesulei ha'Mukdashin that are redeemed and slaughtered are exempt from Matnos Kehunah, as the Mishnah records (Chulin 130a).


34) [line 2] MISCHASA - a butcher's stall
35) [line 3] KA ZAVIN - he is buying
36) [line 6] KESAFTA - cash box
37) [line 9] MIF'A PA'I - cries out (e.g. "Do not give it away for such a low price!")

38) [line 11] ITLIZ - bazaar, marketplace
39) [line 11] LITRA - the Roman Libra, a pound
40) [line 15] "HA'ROSH SHELI..." - if a Kohen or a Nochri said to the owner of an animal "the head is mine and the rest of the animal belongs to you..."

41) [line 21] AT'ISEI - misled him
42) [line 21] ESRIM V'ARBA MATNOS KEHUNAH - the twenty-four gifts to the Kohanim (see below, entries #45-69)

43) [line 22] KELAL U'FERAT - a generalization followed by a specification See Background to Chulin 88:18.

44) [line 22] BRIS MELACH - an everlasting covenant (similar to salt which does not spoil and is used as a preservative for food)

45) [line 22] KOL HA'MEKAIMAN... - when one gives the gifts of Kehunah, it is considered as if he has kept all the laws of the Torah, which we were pronounced in a general commandment followed by specific commandments, and as if he offered all of the sacrifices, through which HaSh-m sealed with us an everlasting covenant

46) [line 25] CHATAS
See Background to Menachos 61:16.

47) [line 25] CHATAS HA'OF
See Background to Chulin 120:26.

48) [line 25] ASHAM VADAI
See Background to Chulin 41:28.

49) [line 25] ASHAM TALUY
(a) If a person is in doubt whether or not he committed a transgression for which he must bring a Korban Chatas, he temporarily brings a Korban Asham Taluy, which is a ram worth two Sela'im (Vayikra 5:17-19). If he later discovers that he did indeed sin, he must offer a Korban Chatas; the Asham Taluy only provides temporary atonement during the period of doubt.
(b) Certain Tana'im, including Isi ben Yehudah, rule that a person is only obligated to bring an Asham Taluy if there are "two pieces, one of which was eaten" ("Chatichah mi'Shtei Chatichos"). For example, if a person ate one out of two pieces of fat, where one was Shuman (permitted fat) and the other was Chelev (forbidden fat), and he later found out that he may have eaten the forbidden piece, he has to bring an Asham Taluy. If he has a doubt whether one piece of fat that he ate was Shuman or Chelev, he does not bring an Asham Taluy. Other Tana'im, including Rebbi Akiva, rule that even in the latter case he brings an Asham Taluy.

The Torah commands to bring a Minchah offering on Shavu'os called the Shtei ha'Lechem (Vayikra 23:16-17) that consists of two loaves of bread that are Chametz, made from two Esronim of fine wheat flour. In conjunction with the Shtei ha'Lechem, various Korbenos Olah, a goat as a Korban Chatas and two sheep (the Kivsei Atzeres) that are Zivchei Shelamim are offered (ibid. 23:18-19). (These sheep were the only Shelamim brought by the Tzibur, and the only Shelamim that were Kodshei Kodashim.)

51) [line 26] LOG SHEMEN SHEL METZORA - the remainder of the Log of oil which is used in the purification process of a Metzora (Vayikra 14:10; for a discussion of the laws of a Metzora, see Background to Menachos 48:26)

52) [line 26] SHTEI HA'LECHEM
See above, entry #50.

53) [line 26] LECHEM HA'PANIM
See above, entry #14c.

54) [line 26] SHEYAREI MENACHOS - the remainder of all Menachos that are eaten by the Kohanim

55) [line 26] MINCHAS HA'OMER
See Background to Chulin 120:32.

56) [line 27] HA'BECHORAH (BECHOR)
See Background to Chulin 130:8.

57) [line 27] HA'BIKURIM
See Background to Chulin 131:10.

(a) CHAZEH VA'SHOK - See Background to Chulin 130:3:c.
(b) ZERO'A BESHELAH - See Background to Chulin 98:7:c-d.

59) [line 27] OROS KODSHIM - the hides of the sacrifices

60) [line 28] TERUMAH
See Background to Chulin 131:9:a.

61) [line 28] TERUMAS MA'ASER
See Background to Chulin 131:9:a.

62) [line 28] CHALAH
See Background to Chulin 131:7.

63) [line 28] REISHIS HA'GEZ
See Background to Chulin 131:8.

64) [line 28] MATANOS
See Background to Chulin 130:1.

65) [line 29] PIDYON HA'BEN
See Background to Chulin 68:7.

66) [line 29] PIDYON PETER CHAMOR There is a Mitzvah to redeem each firstborn male donkey, as the verse states, "v'Hayah Ki Yevi'acha HaSh-m El Eretz ha'Kena'ani... v'Chol *Peter Chamor* Tifdeh v'Seh, v'Im Lo Sifdeh va'Arafto" - "And it shall come to pass that when HaSh-m brings you to the land of the Kena'ani... And every *firstborn donkey* must be redeemed with a sheep [that is given to a Kohen]. If it is not redeemed, you must decapitate it" (Shemos 13:11-13).

67) [line 29] SEDEH ACHUZAH
(a) A Sedeh Achuzah is a field that came into the possession of its owner's family after the conquest and division of Eretz Yisrael, at the time of Yehoshua bin Nun.
(b) Such a field may only be sold until the Yovel year, at which time it automatically returns to the possession of its original owner (Vayikra 25:25-28). Because of this, when a person sells an ancestral field he normally intends to sell only the Peiros, or produce, of the land until the Yovel year, and not the land itself (Gitin 48a).
(c) Beginning two years after the sale, the original owner may redeem the field from the person who purchased it. He does so by returning the proportion of the money that was paid for the remaining years until the Yovel year (Erchin 29a). The buyer is forced to accept the redemption money and return the field.
(d) For a discussion of the Halachos of someone who is Makdish (consecrates to Hekdesh) a Sedeh Achuzah, see Background to Bava Basra 102:11.

68) [line 29] SEDEH CHARAMIM - a field sanctified as "Cherem"
(a) There are two types of Charamim (a type of vow or pledge in which one pronounces "This object should be a Cherem"):

1. Chermei Kohanim, which are given to the Kohanim for their personal use and cannot be redeemed from the Kohen (see Bamidbar 18:14);
2. Chermei Gavo'ah, which are given to the Beis ha'Mikdash for the Bedek ha'Bayis and can be redeemed like any other Hekdesh.

(b) "Sedeh Charamim" refers to a field that was consecrated as Chermei Gavo'ah. Normally, an object that is consecrated as Chermei Gavo'ah but which is not usable by the Beis ha'Mikdash in its present state is sold and the money becomes Hekdesh. A field that was consecrated as Chermei Gavo'ah differs. A "Sedeh Charamim" may be redeemed by its owner (or his son) before Yovel. If it is redeemed by the owner (or his son) before Yovel, then the field becomes his just like it was his before he consecrated it. If another person redeems the field, or if it is not redeemed at all before Yovel (see Chart to Erchin 24-34), then upon the beginning of Yovel it leaves the possession of the one who consecrated it and it becomes the collective property of the Kohanim who are serving in the Beis ha'Mikdash at that time (at the beginning of the Yovel year). The field is divided equally among all of the members of that Mishmar of Kohanim (Vayikra 27:21).

69) [line 29] GEZEL HA'GER
See Background to Chulin 131:11.

70) [line 33] BASAR CHIYUVA AZLINAN - Do we rule that since the non-Kohen owns the head of the animal from which one is obligated to give the Matanah of the Lechayayim, he is not exempt from giving it to a Kohen?

71) [line 34] BASAR IKAR BEHEMAH AZLINAN - or do we rule that since the Kohen owns the rest (and major part) of the animal, the owner is exempt from giving the Lechayayim to a Kohen?

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