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Previous daf Chulin 120
CHULIN 120 (2 Sivan) - This Daf has been dedicated in memory of Harry
Bernard Zuckerman, Baruch Hersh ben Yitzchak (and Miryam Toba), by his
children and sons-in-law.
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the
marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any *OTHER*
important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi
 Gemara 120a [line 20]:
the words "*Chelev* d'Karish"
should be "*Chala* d'Karish" (ARUCH)
 Tosfos 120a DH Mah l'Hanach:
That which is quoted in the name of MAHARSHA to erase the word "Lav" is
incorrect; the MAHARSHA agrees that our Girsa is correct
KOHEN and others)
 Gemara 120b [line 22]:
The words "u'She'ar *Minei* Peiros"
should be "u'She'ar *Mei* Peiros" (SHITAH MEKUBETZES #2; Mishnayos)
 Gemara 120b [line 32]:
The words "Mah Mashkin *d'Kodshim* b'Terumah"
should be "Mah Mashkin *d'Kadshei* b'Terumah" (YA'AVETZ)
 Rashi 120b DH v'Rebbi Yehoshua Savar:
The words "she'Yehu ha'Mashkin *Mimenah*"
should be "she'Yehu ha'Mashkin *ha'Yotzim Mimenah*"
 Tosfos 120b DH Lichtov b'Shratzim v'Leisu Hanach:
It appears that the DH should be "she'Ken Tum'asan b'Mashehu," as in
 Tosfos DH Heicha:
The words "Havah *Mechaivin*, Keivan"
should be "Havah *Mechaivinan*, Keivan"
1a) [line 1] OR - skin, hide
b) [line 1] ROTEV - sauce, gravy
c) [line 1] KIPAH - particles of boiled meat and/or spices that settle to
the bottom of the pot
2) [line 2] TUM'AS OCHELIN (TUM'AS OCHLIN: K'BEITZAH)
(a) See Background to Chulin 33:28.
(b) All *foods* become Tamei if they touch a source of Tum'ah, but only
after they first become wet. From then on, even after they dry, they can
still become Tamei. Seven liquids can enable foods to become Tamei: water,
dew, oil, wine, milk, blood, and bee's honey. The minimum amount of food
that can become Tamei is a k'Beitzah. The modern equivalent of a Beitzah is
0.05, 0.0576 or 0.1 liter, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions.
(c) In order for something edible to receive Tum'as Ochlin, it has to be
considered food. A person's intention to eat the item and treat it as a food
gives it the status of a food and it can receive Tum'as Ochlin. Once food
becomes Tamei, it cannot become Tahor by immersing it in a Mikvah.
3) [line 3] SHOMER - something that protects or preserves a food or a
4) [line 3] NIMA - a hair
5) [line 6] CHALCHULEI MECHALCHEL - it penetrates [through the skin until
the flesh, where it is attached; i.e. a hair is only a Shomer and not a
Shomer on top of another Shomer]
6) [line 8] KESIVAH TAMAH - a perfect writing, with no part of any letter
7) [line 11] TZIV - a strand of flesh or skin
8) [line 13] YAD - a handle for a food or utensil
9) [line 14] MELAI - the "whiskers" that extend upward from ears of grain,
known as the glume, which is part of the chaff
10) [line 14] B'MELAI SHE'BEIN HA'MELA'IM - when one takes hold of a number
of glumes at once (and together they are strong enough that they do not
11) [line 19] SHUMNA - the film of fat that forms on the surface of a pot of
soup or a meat stew
12) [line 20] (CHELEV) [CHALA] D'KARISH - (O.F. glaire - a viscous,
semi-fluid sticky substance) the jellied gravy of meat
13) [line 22] TZIR - brine (usually fish brine)
14a) [line 23] K'CHOSEVES B'YOM HA'KIPURIM
The amount of solid food for which a person is liable for eating on Yom
ha'Kipurim is food the size of a fat date (see next entry).
b) [line 23] MISHUM YESUVEI DA'ATA - [the liability is] because of the
setting at ease of one's mind (ISUR ACHILAH B'YOM HA'KIPURIM)
The Torah uses the word "*Te'anu* Es Nafshoseichem" - "you shall *afflict*
your souls" to describe the prohibition against eating on Yom ha'Kipurim. In
all other prohibitions against eating, the Torah uses the term "Achilah"
("Lo Sochal," "Lo Sochelu"), where Chazal defined the minimum amount of food
prohibited as a k'Zayis. Eating a k'Zayis is not quite satisfying; in the
words of our Gemara, it does not produce Yesuvei Da'ata (Yishuv ha'Da'as),
putting one's mind at ease. Only when one eats food of at least an amount
equal to a Koseves ha'Gasah (a fat date) is one liable for eating on Yom
15) [line 27] PIRMA - (O.F. fondrille) sediment; the particles of boiled
meat and/or spices that settle to the bottom of the pot
16) [line 29] HIKPAH - if one thickened (caused to congeal) blood through
17) [line 29] DAM
See Background to Chulin 116:20.
18) [line 30] SHE'HIMCHAH - (O.F. fondre) if one melted, dissolved
19) [line 30] CHELEV
See Background to Chulin 116:19.
20) [line 30] GEMA'O - swallowed it
21) [line 31] ACHSHUVEI ACHSHEVEI - he gave it more importance (i.e. by
22) [line 41] ISRUCHEI MISRACH - it spoils
23) [line 42] LO HAYESAH LO SHE'AS HA'KOSHER - there was no time at which
the Chelev was permitted; however, Chametz was permitted to be eaten before
24) [line 43] LO HUTAR MI'CHELALO - there is no exception to the general
prohibition against eating Chametz on Pesach. (However, there is an
exception to the general prohibition against eating Chelev; e.g. the Chelev
of a Chayah, which is permitted to be eaten.)
25) [line 50] MELIKAS OF (KORBAN OLAS HA'OF)
The offering of the Olas ha'Of consists of four procedures:
1. MELIKAH - On the Sovev (see Background to Menachos 97:9) of the
Mizbe'ach, on the *southeastern* corner, the Kohen cuts the back of the neck
of the bird with his right thumbnail, making sure to cut both Simanim (the
trachea and the esophagus). (If the southeastern corner of the Sovev is
crowded with Kohanim offering the Olas ha'Of, then the additional Olas ha'Of
Korbanos are offered on the southwestern corner of the Mizbe'ach.)
2. MITZUY - The Kohen presses the cut part of the head and body of the bird
onto the wall of the Mizbe'ach, above the Chut ha'Sikra (red line) that is
located halfway up the Mizbe'ach.
3. HAKTARAS HA'ROSH - The Kohen salts the head and throws it into the fire
on the Mizbe'ach.
4. HAKTARAS HA'GUF - The Kohen cuts out the crop and surrounding feathers of
the bird (or, according to some Tana'im, the crop and the intestines --
Zevachim 65a) and throws them to the ash-pile at the side of the ramp of the
Mizbe'ach. He then tears the bird apart (Shesiyah), salts it, and throws it
into the fire.
26) [line 50] CHATAS HA'OF
(a) The offering of the Chatas ha'Of (which is brought by a Zav and Zavah,
by a Yoledes and Metzora who are poor, and by a poor person who was Nishba
l'Sheker, or who transgressed Shevu'as ha'Edus, or was Metamei Mikdash
v'Kodashav) consists of three procedures (see, for example, Vayikra 5:8-9):
Melikah, Hazayah, and Mitzuy.
1. MELIKAH - Standing on the floor of the Azarah near the southwestern
corner of the Mizbe'ach, the Kohen cuts the back of the neck of the bird
with his right thumbnail. He makes sure to cut one Siman (either the trachea
or the esophagus), but does not sever both Simanim ("v'Lo Yavdil" - Vayikra
2. HAZAYAH - The Kohen sprinkles its blood on the Mizbe'ach (directly from
the neck of the bird), below the Chut ha'Sikra (red line) that is located
halfway up the Mizbe'ach.
3. MITZUY - The Kohen presses the cut neck of the bird to the Mizbe'ach and
squeezes its remaining blood onto the Mizbe'ach.
(b) The Chatas ha'Of is eaten by the Kohanim, in the Azarah, on the day that
it is offered and the following night. No part of it was burned on the
Mizbe'ach ("Ein Mimenu la'Ishim").
27) [line 51] MI'SHULCHAN GAVO'AH KA ZACHU - the Kohanim receive the portion
of the Korbanos from "HaSh-m's table"; they do not have any monetary rights
to it; merely a Zechus to eat it
28) [line 52] LIGMAR ME'HANI - learn this Halachah (that the liquids that
exude from Sheratzim that are cooked or pickled are prohibited) from these
(from Chelev, Chametz and Nivlas Of Tahor, where Reish Lakish taught that
drinking the liquefied products of these materials is prohibited)
29) [last line] DAYO LA'BA MIN HA'DIN LIHEYOS KA'NIDON - it is sufficient to
give the Halachah learned from a Kal va'Chomer the exact status of the
Halachah from which it was learned.
30) [line 3] SHE'KEN TUM'ASAN B'MASHEHU (TUM'AS SHERETZ)
(a) A Sheretz (a crawling pest -- see Vayikra 11:29-38 and Background to
Menachos 29:25), even if it or a part of it is only the size of an Adashah
(lentil bean), is an Av ha'Tum'ah (Chagigah 11a, Ohalos 1:7). It makes a
person or object Tamei at the level of a Rishon l'Tum'ah through Maga
(contact), whether the Sheretz was touched willingly or unwillingly. The
person who becomes Tamei by touching a Sheretz may not eat Terumah or
Kodshim or enter the Azarah of the Beis Ha'Mikdash. However, he can
immediately immerse in a Mikvah. After nightfall he becomes Tahor and may
eat Terumah or Kodshim or enter the Azarah.
(b) In addition to Tum'as Maga, a dead Sheretz that is found in an
earthenware oven makes the oven and all food or drink items that are in it
Temei'im, whether the Sheretz touches them or not.
31) [line 4] TEVEL (TERUMOS AND MA'ASROS)
(a) After a crop that is grown in Eretz Yisrael is harvested and brought to
the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah Gedolah from the crop
and give it to a Kohen. Although the Torah does not specify the amount to be
given, the Rabanan set the requirement at one fiftieth of the total crop.
After Terumah is removed from the produce, one tenth of the produce that
remains must be designated "Ma'aser Rishon," and given to a Levi. The Levi,
in turn, must separate one tenth of his Ma'aser Rishon as Terumas Ma'aser,
to be given to a Kohen, as it states in Bamidbar 18:26.
(b) The produce may not be eaten until both Terumos have been separated from
it. Until the Terumos have been separated, the produce is called Tevel. The
punishment for eating Tevel is Misah b'Yedei Shamayim (Sanhedrin 83a).
(c) A second tithe is given every year after Ma'aser Rishon has been
separated. The tithe that is separated in the third and sixth years of the
7-year Shemitah cycle is called Ma'aser Ani and is given to the poor.
(d) The tithe that is separated during the first, second, fourth and fifth
years is called Ma'aser Sheni. The Torah requires that Ma'aser Sheni be
brought to Yerushalayim and eaten there by its owner. Anyone who eats
Ma'aser Sheni produce outside of the walls of Yerushalayim (without Pidyon,
redemption -- see (e) below) receives Malkus (RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'aser Sheni
2:5). Once the Ma'aser Sheni produce enters the walls of Yerushalayim, it
may not be redeemed. It is considered "Niklat," "captured" by the walls.
(e) Alternatively, Ma'aser Sheni produce may be redeemed (Pidyon), in which
case the money used to redeem it is brought to Yerushalayim. If the owner
himself redeems the produce, he must add an additional *fifth* (of the
ensuing total, or a *quarter* of the original value). The food that is
bought with this money in Yerushalayim becomes Kodesh like Ma'aser Sheni and
must be eaten b'Taharah. Ma'aser Sheni that was redeemed by anyone besides
the owner is exempt from the additional fifth.
32) [line 4] HE'CHADASH (MINCHAS HA'OMER)
(a) There is a Mitzvah to bring the Minchas ha'Omer on the second day of
Pesach. A large quantity of barley is reaped after nightfall after the first
day of Pesach. At this time the grain is still moist, and the process of
extracting one Omer (approximately 2.16, 2.49 or 4.32 liters, depending upon
the differing Halachic opinions) of fine barley flour is extremely
difficult. The flour is baked and offered on the 16th of Nisan. It is also
referred to as the Minchas Bikurim -- Vayikra 2:14-16). Levonah is added,
and Tenufah (waving portions of Korbanos, see Background to Sanhedrin
82:60), Hagashah, Kemitzah and Haktarah are performed (see Background to
(b) The Sheyarei ha'Minchah, also called the Mosar ha'Omer, are eaten by the
Kohanim. In addition, a lamb is offered as an Olah, as it states in Vayikra
23:12. The Minchas Nesachim that is offered with this lamb contained *two*
Esronim of fine flour mixed in three Lugin of olive oil and three Lugin of
wine. The Minchas ha'Omer is the first offering of the new grain of the year
(Chadash). Until it is offered, there is a prohibition to eat Chadash of the
five grain species, wheat, barley, oats, rye and spelt (Kidushin 37a,
Menachos 68b, RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'achalos Asuros 10:2), which is removed after
it is offered.
33) [line 4] HEKDESH - an object consecrated to the Beis ha'Mikdash
(KEDUSHAS HA'GUF / KEDUSHAS DAMIM)
(a) An object with Kedushas ha'Guf is an object with intrinsic Kedushah,
such as the utensils used in the Beis ha'Mikdash (RAMBAM Hilchos Me'ilah
6:5) or a live Korban that is used in the Beis ha'Mikdash "as is." An animal
that has Kedushas ha'Guf cannot be redeemed without a Mum (blemish).
(b) An object with Kedushas Damim is an object the *value* of which is
consecrated to Hekdesh; e.g. an animal that a person consecrated to be sold
in order to buy another animal as a Korban with its value.
(c) An object with Kedushas Bedek ha'Bayis is an object the *value* of which
is consecrated to Hekdesh so that it should be used for filling the
day-to-day needs of the Beis ha'Mikdash, and not to be used for Korbanos.
34) [line 4] SHEVI'IS
(a) The Torah requires that farmers desist from working the land every
seventh year, as described in Vayikra 25:1-7. The fruits that grow during
the seventh (Shevi'is) year are holy to the extent that 1. they must be
considered ownerless; anyone may come into any field and pick the fruit that
he intends to eat. 2. The fruits may not be bought and sold in a normal
fashion (see Insights to Sukah 39:2). 3. The Torah requires that the fruits
of Shevi'is be used only for eating or drinking (in the normal manner of
eating for that type of fruit) or for burning to provide light (in the case
of oil). They may not be wasted or used for medicinal purposes or animal
(b) One may not do any work with the land or with trees growing from the
land that makes improvements.
(c) The Shemitah year is meant to teach the Jewish people to rely on HaSh-m
for their sustenance, a fact that is not always clear to them during the six
years in which they work their own fields.
35) [line 4] KIL'AYIM
See Background to Chulin 115:6.
36) [line 9] BIKURIM
(a) The Mitzvah of Bikurim consists of bringing the first fruits to emerge
in one's field every year to the Beis ha'Mikdash. The verse states, "v'Hayah
Ki Savo El ha'Aretz... vi'Yrishtah v'Yashavta Bah... v'Lakachta me'Reishis
Kol Pri ha'Adamah..." - "And it shall be that when you come to the land...
and you inherit it and you settle in it. You shall take of the first fruits
of the land..." (Devarim 26:1-2). Each farmer enters the Azarah (courtyard)
of the Beis ha'Mikdash with his Bikurim fruit in a decorative basket. While
the basket is on his shoulder, he recites the *Mikra Bikurim*, specific
verses from Devarim (26:3, 5-10) thanking HaSh-m for taking us out of
Mitzrayim and giving us the land of Yisrael. He then places the basket of
fruit at the base of the southwestern corner of the Mizbe'ach (RAMBAM
Hilchos Bikurim 3:12) and bows down before HaSh-m. Afterwards, he gives the
Bikurim to a Kohen (Mishnah Bikurim 3:8, RAMBAM ibid. 3:1). Live pigeons
were a (voluntary) part of the adornment of the baskets of Bikurim. They
were offered as Korbenos Olah when the Bikurim were brought (Menachos 58a).
(b) The Mitzvah of Bikurim applies only to the seven species with which the
land of Eretz Yisrael was blessed (Devarim 8:8) -- wheat, barley, grapes,
figs, pomegranates, olives and dates (Bikurim 1:3, RAMBAM ibid. 2:2).
(c) Kohanim eat the Bikurim within the walls of Yerushalayim. If a person
eats them outside of Yerushalayim after the Bikurim have entered
Yerushalayim (according to the Rambam, or after the Bikurim have entered the
Azarah according to Rashi to Makos 18b), he receives Malkus. They must be
returned to, and eaten in Yerushalayim.
37) [line 13] KERIYAH V'HA'ACHAH - reading the portion of "Mikra Bikurim"
and placing the basket down in the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash (see
38) [line 13] TERUMAH
See above, entry #31.
39) [line 21] SISVANIYOS - winter grapes; inferior, unripe grapes that stay
on the vine throughout the winter that are only used to make vinegar
40a) [line 24] DON MINAH U'MINAH
"Judge from it and [entirely] from it," i.e. an analogy must be carried
through so that the case deduced agrees throughout with the case from which
the deduction was made.
b) [line 24] DON MINAH V'UKI B'ASRAH
Judge from it but place the deduction in its own context, i.e. let the case
deduced by analogy be regulated by the rules that are appropriate to that
41) [line 32] TIROSH - grape juice
42) [line 33] YITZHAR - olive oil
43) [line 39] SOFGIN ES HA'ARBA'IN (MALKUS ARBA'IM)
(a) It is a Mitzvah to administer the punishment of Malkus Arba'im (Torah
lashes) to one who is liable to Malkus, as the Torah states, "v'Hipilo
ha'Shofet v'Hikahu" - "and the judge shall cast him down and whip him"
(Devarim 25:2). Malkus d'Oraisa is administered in Eretz Yisrael by a court
of three judges who are Semuchin (Halachically ordained), whether the Beis
ha'Mikdash stands or not (RAMBAM Hilchos Sanhedrin 16:2). Courts outside of
Eretz Yisrael can administer only Makas Mardus (Rabbinic lashes, see
Background to Menachos 70:27).
(b) A person is only liable to Malkus Arba'im if he transgresses a *Lav* (a
negative commandment) of the Torah that is not "modified," such as a Lav
shebi'Chelalos (see Background to Menachos 58:15), a Lav she'Nitak l'Aseh
(see Background to Chulin 81:1), etc. A prohibition that is implied by a
positive commandment is never punishable by Malkus. In addition, in order to
be liable he must transgress in front of witnesses after receiving a proper
(c) Malkus are administered in numbers of three, with a maximum amount of
thirty-nine for each transgression. The culprit is examined to determine how
many lashes he can withstand. He stands leaning against a post and his
clothes are ripped until his heart is revealed. The agent of Beis Din, a
Torah scholar who is specifically weak, stands on a rock behind him,
whipping one third of the lashes on his chest and two thirds on his back,
one third on each shoulder (Makos 22b).
(d) During the whipping, the most distinguished judge of the court reads the
verse "Im Lo Sishmor La'asos Es Kol Divrei ha'Torah ha'Zos... v'Hifla HaSh-m
Es Makoscha..." - "If you will not be careful to perform all the words of
this Torah... then HaSh-m will make your blows extraordinary..." (Devarim
28:58-59). For each blow, the deputy judge counts out loud the number of
each lash and a third judge calls out "Hakehu!" - "Whip him!" If the culprit
dies from the lashing, the agent of Beis Din is exempt from any punishment.
However, if he administers an extra lash due to a mistake in the count, and
the extra lash causes the culprit to die, he must go to Galus (exile, see
Background to Makos 7:10).
44) [line 39] ORLAH
See Background to Chulin 115:21.