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 Tosfos 106a DH Chamei:
 Tosfos 106b DH Amar Rav:
1) [line 3] MAYIM RISHONIM HE'ECHILU BESAR CHAZIR - [the lack of washing] Netilas Yadayim caused [a Jew] to eat pig's flesh. During one of the periods when the Nochri oppressors issued harsh decrees against the Jews to prevent them from learning the Torah and performing the Mitzvos, the Jewish owner of a restaurant devised a plot to circumvent the decree forbidding Kosher Shechitah. He had secretly available both Kosher and non-Kosher meat. The owner ordered his waiter to give bread to every arriving customer. The waiter informed the owner of the customer's conduct. A customer who washed his hands was served Kosher meat while a customer who did not, even if he was Jewish, was served pig's meat. (In those times, it was not readily noticeable whether a person was Jewish or not based upon his dress -- MAHARIK)
2) [line 4] ACHARONIM HOTZI'U ES HA'ISHAH MI'BA'ALAH - [the lack of washing] Mayim Acharonim caused a woman to be divorced by her husband. The Sages Rebbi Meir, Rebbi Yehudah and Rebbi Yosi were traveling together when they decided to lodge at a certain inn. The owner of the inn was named "Kidor." Rebbi Meir was suspicious of him since his name was reminiscent of the verse, "Ki Dor Tahpuchos Hemah, Banim Lo Emun Bam" - "for they are a very perverse generation, children in whom there is no faith" (Devarim 32:20). Rebbi Yehudah and Rebbi Yosi were not as concerned with the connotations of names, and, as a result, entrusted their money with the innkeeper. Rebbi Meir chose to bury his money bag in a graveyard. As it happened, it was buried over the grave of the innkeeper's father, who appeared to his son in a dream and revealed the whereabouts of the moneybag. The innkeeper asked the sages to interpret his dream. They claimed that dreams dreamt in twilight are of no consequence. However, Rebbi Meir saw to it that he watched his buried moneybag all day so that it would not be taken. When they took leave of the inn, Rebbi Yehudah and Rebbi Yosi asked the innkeeper for their money. He denied having ever received it. They noticed the remnants of his meal of lentils stuck to his beard around his mouth. (Had he washed Mayim Acharonim, he would have washed away those remnants.) The sages approached the innkeeper's wife when he had gone away and asked for their money, claiming that Kidor sent them with the following sign: "Tell my wife that it was lentils that I ate for lunch and she will give you the money." His wife complied and the sages left with their money. When the innkeeper returned and discovered what had happened, he became so upset that he divorced his wife (Yoma 83b).
3) [line 6] HE'ECHILU BESAR NEVEILAH - (the same story as above, entry #1, except that the Jew who did not wash his hands ate the meat of a Neveilah (see Background to Chulin 32:20a) instead of the meat of a pig. One who eats the meat of a pig transgresses two Isurim (eating pig and not eating Kosher animals -- see RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'achalos Asuros 2:1) while one who eats Neveilah only transgresses one Isur.)
4) [line 7] HARGU ES HA'NEFESH - (the same story as above, entry #2, except that the Jew who did not wash Mayim Acharonim became so upset that he killed his wife.)
5) [line 9] CHADA ME'HANEI V'CHADA ME'HANEI L'CHUMRA - one of these and one of those, the more stringent ones, i.e. that the Jew of the first story ate pig and the Jew of the second story killed his wife
6) [line 10] CHAMEI HA'UR - water heated by fire
8) [line 16] MATBILIN BAHEM HA'YADAYIM (TEVILAS YADAYIM)
9) [line 17] PANAV YADAV V'RAGLAV - his face, his hands and his feet. Rashi DH Aval Lo Panav Yadav v'Raglav states that on this page, this phrase is actually only referring to Yadav, his hands, and the words Panav v'Raglav are added inconsequentially, simply because these three are written together on many occasions ("Urcha b'Alma Nakat")
10) [line 21] BAS BIRASA - a shallow ditch dug in the ground that does not have the size of a Kosher Mikvah (forty Se'in) but is attached to a Kosher Mikvah. It is prohibited mid'Rabanan to immerse hands in a Bas Birasa lest one come to immerse his hands in a utensil.
11) [line 32] MIPNEI SERACH TERUMAH - in order to accustom the Kohanim who eat Terumah to wash their hands (Netilas Yadayim) before eating Terumah
12) [line 40] V'ACHER SHE'LO SHATAF, TAMEI - and another [person] (besides the person who touched a Zav), one who did not wash his hands, is Tamei
13) [line 46] GASEI HA'RU'ACH - haughty people
16) [line 51] EIN MEZAMNIN AL HA'PEIROS - we do not perform the "Zimun"
after eating fruit (BIRKAS HA'ZIMUN)
17) [line 52] MITZVAH L'CHALEK - it is proper for them to "split up," each reciting the after-blessing individually (as opposed to one of them reciting the blessing to fulfill the obligation of both of them, which is Halachically permissible but not recommended)
18) [line 53] SOFRIM - Torah sages
21) [last line] L'SERUMAH, AD HA'PEREK - for Terumah, until the joint: (a) until the joint where the fingers connect to the hand (RASHI); (b) the entire hand until the wrist joint, where the hand connects to the arm (TOSFOS DH u'Shema, citing RABEINU AVRAHAM, ROSH 8:11, citing the RIF)
22a) [line 1] L'KIDUSH YADAYIM V'RAGLAYIM BA'MIKDASH, AD HA'PEREK - for Kidush Yadayim in the Beis ha'Mikdash, until the joint: (a) until the wrist joint, where the hand connects to the arm (RASHI, ROSH 8:11, citing the RIF); (b) until the elbow (TOSFOS DH u'Shema, citing RABEINU AVRAHAM)
b) [line 1] KIDUSH YADAYIM V'RAGLAYIM BA'MIKDASH (AVODAS HA'KOHANIM:
KIDUSH YADAYIM V'RAGLAYIM)
23) [line 2] V'CHOL DAVAR SHE'CHOTZETZ BI'TEVILAH - and all things that
intervene between the water used to Metaher a person and his body (TEVILAH:
(b) An intervening substance that covers the majority of one's body and that a person minds (and would normally remove) causes a Chatzitzah that disqualifies his immersion in a Mikvah.
24) [line 4] AD KAN L'CHULIN; AD KAN LI'SERUMAH - until here for Chulin; until here for Terumah (Rav was showing his students which joints act as the border of the hand for various Halachos of Netilas Yadayim)
25) [line 6] L'CHUMRA - to be more stringent (including more of the hand in both cases)
26) [line 10] LEVA'I - a Levite (who need not become accustomed to eating his meals b'Taharah
27) [last line] U'MASNEH ALEIHEN - and he makes a stipulation about them [to include the entire day in his purification, as long as he is careful not to let them get Temei'im]