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Chulin 98

CHULIN 96-98 - Sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor. Kollel Iyun Hadaf is indebted to him for his encouragement and support and prays that Hashem will repay him in kind.

*************************GIRSA SECTION*********************
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the
marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any *OTHER*
important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi
and Tosfos

[1] Gemara 98a "Savar Rav Asi l'Shurei b'Mai d'Bala Dikula" [line 20]:
(According to the Hafla'ah sheb'Erchin, the Aruch must have had the Girsa
"b'Mai d'Vala Yoreh" -- see Tosfos DH d'Nafal)

[2] Tosfos 98a DH b'Veitzas:
The words "v'Shema l'Inyan Zeh Nami Yesh Chiluk"
appear to be unnecessary (They are not found in the Rosh or Tosfos ha'Rosh)

[3] Rashi 98b DH v'Lakach miDam:
The words "v'Kasavar Rabbi Yehudah" require explanation -- *everyone* is of
this opinion; perhaps these words are unnecessary - MK *************************************************************

1) [line 1] BEITZAS EFRO'ACH - an egg that contains dead chick in it
2) [line 14] IY MISHUM HA, LO IRYA - if [your argument is] because of this [logic], this is no proof

3) [line 19] TARBA - [forbidden] fat, Chelev (see Background to Chulin 5:15a)
4) [line 19] B'DIKULA D'VISRA - (a) into a kettle of meat (RASHI); (b) into [a kettle containing] a basketful of meat (ARUCH) (see Girsa Section #1)

5) [line 24] B'TELASIN - with thirty [times as much of permitted food items (as opposed to the usual sixty times as much)]

(a) Food items that are prohibited to be eaten, such as Chelev, Nosar, Pigul, etc., have a minimal Shi'ur (amount) that the Torah specifies for which a person who eats them is liable to punishment. Even though an amount less than this is also prohibited to be eaten according to Rebbi Yochanan ("Chatzi Shi'ur Asur Min ha'Torah" - Yoma 74a; the Halachah follows this ruling), it incurs no punishment by Beis Din. A person who eats a Shi'ur incurs Malkus (lashes). A person who eats less does not, since "Ein [Ma'aseh] Achilah Pachos mik'Zayis" - "Eating is defined as an act of eating at least a k'Zayis".
(b) This Halachah applies not only to prohibited foods, but rather to every Isur that has a specified Shi'ur. If a person transgresses an Isur with an amount less than its specific Shi'ur, even though he does not incur Malkus, he has still transgressed an Isur d'Oraisa. For example, if a person writes one letter on Shabbos or cooks an amount of food less than a Grogeres on Shabbos, he has transgressed an Isur Torah.

7) [last line] ZERO'A BESHELAH - a section of the cooked foreleg of the ram of Shelamim that a Nazir brings upon the completion of his Nezirus (NAZIR)
(a) If a person makes a vow to become a Nazir without stipulating a time period, his or her Nezirus lasts for a period of thirty days. If the person stipulates a time period, his or her Nezirus lasts for whatever amount of time he stipulated. During this period, the Nazir is not allowed to 1. cut his hair; 2. become Tamei by touching or being in the same room as a corpse; or 3. consume any products of the grapevine (Bamidbar 6:1-21, SEFER HA'CHINUCH #377). Transgressing any one of these prohibitions makes the Nazir liable to Malkus, as long as he was warned beforehand.
(b) If an ordinary Nazir becomes Tamei through contact with or being in the same room as a corpse, on the third and seventh days he must be sprinkled with water that has the ashes of the Parah Adumah in it (see Background to Chulin 81:11) to become Tahor. On the seventh day of his purification he shaves off the hair of his head. On the eighth day, he brings the sacrifices of a Nazir who becomes Tamei and begins counting anew the days of Nezirus that he accepted upon himself. The sacrifices he brings are two Torim (turtledoves) or two Benei Yonah (young common doves), one as a Chatas and one as an Olah. He must also bring a yearling sheep as an Asham. (These Korbanos and this shaving are in addition to the Korbanos and shaving that he, and every Nazir, brings upon the completion of his Nezirus.)
(c) When a Nazir completes his period of Nezirus, he must offer three sacrifices: a male sheep as an Olah, a female sheep as a Chatas, and a ram as a Shelamim. Together with the Shelamim he brings 6 and 2/3 Esronos of Soles (fine flour), which are made into twenty loaves of Matzah, ten Chalos (unleavened loaves of Matzah) and ten Rekikin (flat Matzos). He then shaves off the hair of his head and burns it under the cauldron in which the Zero'a of the Shelamim is cooked (Bamidbar 6:18). After the Zero'a is cooked, a Kohen takes it along with one Chalah and one Rakik, and performs Tenufah (waving) on them with the Nazir (Bamidbar 6:19). The Kohen receives these items as his portion. He may share it with his family and they eat them in the city of Yerushalayim, for the day that the Korban is offered and the following night.
(d) The Gemara derives the Halachah that a forbidden food is Batel b'Shishim from the law of the Zero'a Beshelah of a Nazir. Even though the Zero'a -- which is Kodshim and may not be eaten by a non-Kohen -- is cooked with the rest of the animal, it does not prohibit the rest of the animal from being eaten by a non-Kohen.


8) [line 1] EIN BESHELAH ELA SHELEIMAH - the word "Beshelah" means "Sheleimah," whole: (a) we read the word "Beshelah" as a contraction of two words, "Bashel Lah," which means "cook everything that is with it" (i.e. cook it whole) (TOSFOS DH Ein Beshelah); (b) the letter "Beis" may be switched with the letter "Mem" in the code known as the ALB"M GDN"S format (see Shabbos 104a), which is a method of linguistic extrapolation whereby each group of four letters may be interchanged with each other. (The first group is comprised of the first two letters at the beginning of the alphabet along with the first two letters of the second half of the alphabet; the second group is comprised of the next two letters at the beginning of the alphabet along with the next two letters of the second half of the alphabet, etc.) As a result, after the Beis is switched with the Mem, and the letters are rearranged, the result is "Sheleimah" (YA'AVETZ)

9) [line 17] MIN B'MINO LO BATIL - in a mixture of like objects or liquids (such as the blood of the Par and Sa'ir of Yom ha'Kipurim, or kosher and non-kosher pieces of meat) the lesser amount does not become nullified to the larger amount, even if the ratio between the quantities is very great See Background to Chulin 97:7.

10) [line 19] "V'LAKACH MI'DAM HA'PAR UMI'DAM HA'SA'IR" - "And he (the Kohen Gadol) shall take of the blood of the bull and of the blood of the goat" (Vayikra 16:18) - This verse describes the application of blood onto the Mizbach ha'Zahav (the Golden Altar of Incense) on Yom ha'Kipurim. Since the verse (Shemos 30:10) states that this service was performed only once a year, Chazal learn that the blood of the bull and the blood of the goat had to be mixed (SIFSEI CHACHAMIM TO Vayikra ibid.). Even though the blood of an average bull is fifteen times as much as the blood of a goat, the verse still uses the term "umi'Dam ha'Sa'ir" to show that it is not nullified.

11a) [line 21] CHIDUSH HU - The Halachah of the Zero'a Beshelah is a nuance (since the Zero'a, which is prohibited to the Nazir, is cooked with the rest of the Eil Nazir, which he will eat. This is the equivalent of being Mevatel an Isur l'Chatchilah.)
b) [line 22] UME'CHIDUSH LO GAMRINAN - Therefore we cannot apply any leniencies found in Zero'a Beshelah to other Torah laws unless we are told to do so explicitly. Just as we do not find Bitul Isur l'Chatchilah elsewhere, so, too, other laws that pertain to Zero'a Beshelah do not apply elsewhere. (RASHI to Pesachim 44b DH Ta'am k'Ikar)

When a forbidden object (Isur) is mixed with a permitted object (Heter), the mixture becomes prohibited if most of the mixture is Isur, but is permitted if most of the mixture is Heter because of "Bitul b'Rov." (Mid'Rabanan, sometimes the mixture is prohibited even if most of it is Heter.

13) [line 25] TA'AM K'IKAR - (lit. the flavor of the food is considered like the essence of the food) a prohibited food item that gives flavor ("Ta'am") to another food or drink into which it was mixed, causes the entire quantity of permitted food to become prohibited (i.e. it is not Batel b'Rov).
See Background to Chulin 97:7.

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