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Previous daf Chulin 87
CHULIN 86-90 - Sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor.
Kollel Iyun Hadaf is indebted to him for his encouragement and support and
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We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the
marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any *OTHER*
important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi
 Gemara 87a [line 23]:
The words "Ki Havah Ka Ba'i *Mivrach*"
should read "Ki Havah Ka Ba'i *Michrach*" (RASHASH)
 Gemara 87a [line 32]:
The words "*Yishveh* Arba'im Zehuvim"
should read "*Shavah* Arba'im Zehuvim" (all non-Vilna editions of the
Shas; Ein Yakov)
 Gemara 87a [line 33]:
The words "*Shanah* l'Osah Mishpachah"
should read "*Yeshnah* l'Osah Mishpachah" (ibid.)
 Rashi 87a DH Ha Idchi Lei:
The words "d'Ha *Kisahu v'Nisgaleh* Patur mil'Chasos"
should read "d'Ha *Ki Lo Nisgaleh* Patur mil'Chasos" (based on Rashi to
Sukah 33a, Avodah Zarah 47a - see RASHASH)
 Tosfos 87a DH u'Mechasi b'Chada Yada:
The words "Tol *B'roch Gavil* l'Torei"
should read "Tol *K'roch v'Gavil* l'Torei" (Tosfos Rosh; see Berachos 40a)
 Tosfos 87a DH Ro'in... belongs on the next page and is referring to the
Beraisa of Zevachim and not to our Mishnah (Rav Isaac Chaver, Mar'eh Cohen)
1) [line 2] D'SHACHIT B'CHADA U'MICHSEI B'CHADA - that he slaughters with
one [hand] and covers the blood with the other [hand]
2) [line 5] KISAHU HA'RU'ACH CHAYAV L'CHASOS - if it (the blood) was covered
by the wind [and subsequently became uncovered] one is obligated to cover
3) [line 9] B'MEH SHE'SHAFACH, BO YECHASEH - with the limb with which he
spilled [the blood], i.e. with his hand, he shall cover [the blood]
4) [line 16] V'IY AMRAT SECHAR BERACHAH, HAVYAN ARBA'IM - and if you say
that it is a charge for the Berachah, they (the charges for taking away the
Mitzvah of Birkas ha'Mazon, which has four Berachos) will amount to forty
5) [line 18] TZEDUKI - heretic (the Girsa in the manuscripts is "Mina"; the
word "Tzeduki" is an emendation of the censors -- see DIKDUKEI SOFRIM #10)
6) [line 18] MI SHE'YATZAR HARIM LO BARA RU'ACH - the One Who fashioned the
mountains did not create the wind (the intention of the heretic was to prove
dualism from this verse (see next entry), that the physical world
(represented by mountains) was created by one power while the spiritual
world (represented by wind) was created by a different power -- MAHARSHA)
7) [line 19] "KI HINEI YOTZER HARIM U'VOREI RU'ACH" - "For, behold, He Who
forms the mountains, and creates the wind, [and declares to man what is his
thought, Who makes the dawn into darkness, and treads on the high places of
the earth, HaSh-m, the G-d of hosts, is His Name.]" (Amos 4:13)
8) [line 20] SHOTEH! SHAFIL L'SEIFEI D'KERA! - Fool! Go down to the end of
9) [line 21] AMAR LEI, "NEKOT LI ZIMNA TELASA YOMEI U'MEHADRANA LACH
TIYUVTA" - he (the heretic) said to him, "Give me three days time and I will
10) [line 23] KI HAVAH KA BA'I (MIVRACH) [MICHRACH] - when he (Rebbi) was
about to begin his meal (lit. break [bread]) (see Girsa Section #1)
11) [line 25] "VA'YITNU B'VARUSI ROSH [V'LITZMA'I YASHKUNI CHOMETZ.]" - "And
they put bitter herbs in my meal, [and for my thirst they gave me vinegar to
drink.]" (Tehillim 69:22)
12) [line 29] O ARBA'IM ZEHUVIM ATAH NOTEL - or would you like to be paid
forty Zehuvim (a substantial amount of money; this is the point in the story
from which the Gemara proves that the charge is for the Berachah -- see
above, entry #4)
13) [line 33] (SHANAH) [YESHNAH] L'OSA MISHPACHAH - there is that family
(see Girsa Section #2, 3)
14) [line 36] HASHAVAS AVEIDAH
(a) The Torah commands that a person who finds a lost object must return it
to its owner, as the verse states, "Hashev Teshivem l'Achicha" - "you shall
surely return them (the lost items) to your brother" (Devarim 22:1; see also
verses 2-3). This Mitzvah applies at all times and is not limited to any
particular time. Since the verse uses the word "v'His'alamta" - "[You shall
not see the bull of your brother or his sheep cast off,] and hide yourself
[from them; you shall surely return them to your brother,]" this teaches
that there are cases when the Mitzvah of returning a lost object does not
apply, as the Beraisa discusses (Sanhedrin 18b).
(b) The Gemara (Bava Metzia 31a) proves from the word "Hashev," that the
Torah obligates a person to return the same lost item many times, if it
continues to get lost.
15) [line 40] EIN DICHUY ETZEL MITZVOS - if an object that the Torah
requires for the fulfillment of a particular Mitzvah becomes disqualified
for that Mitzvah, is does not become irrevocably disqualified ("Dachuy") for
that Mitzvah; it can become fit again for the Mitzvah at a later date
(a) The concept of "Dichuy" (irrevocable disqualification) applies to
Halachos in the Torah where a particular object is required for a Korban or
Mitzvah. Some examples are limbs and blood of the Korbanos which were
prepared to be offered on the altar, blood of Kosher birds and wild animals
that must be covered with dirt, live animals that were designated for
Korbanos, and objects used to perform Mitzvos.
(b) The question of Dichuy with regard to objects used to perform Mitzvos
applies in two instances: 1. the object was only fit for use *after* the
time that the Mitzvah first applied ("Dichuy me'Ikara"); and 2. the object
was fit for use at the time that the Mitzvah first applied, later became
unfit, and afterwards became fit again ("Nir'eh v'Nidcheh"). In the latter
case the Dichuy is stronger.
(c) In our Gemara, Rav Papa proves from the ruling of Rebbi Yochanan that
"Ein Dichuy Etzel Mitzvos," that the concept of Dichuy only applies to
Korbanos and not to Mitzvos. Another example is that even though there is no
Mitzvah of Kisuy ha'Dam when blood starts to drip into water (see next
Mishnah), there is a Mitzvah to cover that blood if the water takes on the
appearance of blood.
16) [line 42] KESHE'RISHUMO NIKAR - when its mark is recognizable
17) [last line] K'ILU HU MAYIM - as if it (the wine) were water, and if
blood would be recognizable in a similar quantity of water, there is an
obligation to cover it
18) [line 1] O B'DAM HA'CHAYAH - or in the blood from a Kosher non-farm
animal (that was the result of blood-letting, not of Shechitah -- RASHI)
19) [line 3] EIN DAM MEVATEL DAM (MIN B'MINO EINO BATEL)
(a) When a forbidden object is mixed with a permitted object, the mixture
becomes prohibited if most of the mixture is Isur, but is permitted if most
of the mixture is Heter because of "Bitul b'Rov."
(b) The above applies when unidentical substances are mixed together.
However, when a liquid mixes with an identical liquid, the Tana'im argue as
to the status of the mixture. According to Rabanan, the Isur can still be
nullified by a majority of Heter. According to Rebbi Yehudah, though, even a
miniscule amount of Isur prohibits the mixture, since the Isur is not
nullified at all. (When two identical *dry* substances become mixed
together, all agree that the majority in the mixture determines the
mixture's Halachic status.)
(c) Similarly, if the blood of Kodshim that must be cast on the Mizbe'ach
mixes with blood that is unfit to be cast on the Mizbe'ach (e.g. Dam
ha'Tamtzis), the Rabanan of Rebbi Yehudah rule that we follow the Rov
(majority). If most of the mixture is Dam ha'Tamtzis, it is not fit for
Zerikah. According to Rebbi Yehudah, we do not follow the Rov, and even if
there is a miniscule amount of blood that is fit for Zerikah, Zerikah may be
performed. With regard to Kisuy ha'Dam, Rebbi Yehudah rules similarly, that
even a miniscule amount of blood that requires Kisuy must be covered, even
when it is mixed into blood that does not require Kisuy.
20) [line 2] DAM HA'NITAZ - blood that spatters, sprays
21) [line 16] MACHSHIRIN (HECHSHER OCHALIN)
(a) Foods may become Temei'im if they touch a source of Tum'ah only if they
were wetted at some point in their history. Making foods wet in a manner
that enables them to become Temei'im is called "Hechsher." From then on,
even after they dry, they can become Temei'im. Wetting food with any of
seven liquids, water, dew, oil, wine, milk, blood, and honey, can enable the
food to become Tamei.
(b) The food can become Tamei only if the owner of the food was *pleased*
that his food became wet. This is learned from the verse, "v'Chi Yutan Mayim
Al Zera..." - "If water has been placed on seed and then the dead body [of a
Sheretz] fell upon it, the seed is Tamei" (Vayikra 11:38). The word "Yutan"
in the verse is written without a Vav, just like the word "Yiten" -- "he
places." However, according to the Mesorah, it is read "Yutan" -- "it was
placed." From this we learn that when water or other liquids fall on the
food it is considered Hechsher only if their presence is desirable to the
owner of the food (i.e. it is as though he himself applied them).
(c) It is necessary only for the owner to desire the liquid; he need not
desire that the liquid come into contact with the food. That is, even if the
owner desires the liquid for an entirely different purpose, if the liquid
later comes into contact with food it will enable the food to become Tamei.
On the other hand, if the owner only intended to dispose of the liquid, it
does not enable the food to become Tamei, since only liquids that are
significant can cause Hechsher. It is only considered "Ki Yiten" when the
liquid falls upon an object, with the will of the owner, that is detached
from the ground.
(d) The Gemara (Chulin 35b) learns from the verse "v'Dam Chalalim Yishteh" -
"and it drinks the blood of those it has killed" (Bamidbar 23:24), that
blood is compared to the liquids that bring about Hechsher Ochalin. Shmuel
extends this to liquids that have a red tinge; the Gemara brings various
opinions as to to which liquids Shmuel is referring.
22) [line 20] SHE'TAMDO - that he mixed it
23) [line 23] BI'TZELALTA D'DAMA - [we are dealing] with plasma, the fluid
part of blood
watery liquid that runs off from the blood as it coagulates.
24) [line 29] TEVUL YOM
(a) A Tevul Yom is a person who has immersed in a Mikvah to become Tahor for
Chulin, but is still waiting for nightfall to be completely Tahor with
regard to Terumah, Kodshim and Bi'as Mikdash. The level of Tum'ah of a Tevul
Yom is minimal; he is considered only a Sheni l'Tum'ah and if he touches
Terumah or Kodesh, the Terumah or Kodesh becomes Pasul and must be burned.
Chulin that he touches do not become Teme'im. Liquids that he touches do not
become Rishon l'Tum'ah. If he enters the Mikdash, however, he is Chayav
Kares (see Background to Menachos 92:18).
(b) After the following nightfall, he becomes completely Tahor with regard
to Terumah. If he is a Mechusar Kaparah (see Background to Menachos 27:34),
he must wait until he brings his sacrifices to become completely Tahor with
regard to Kodshim and Bi'as Mikdash.