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Chulin 43

CHULIN 41-43 - sponsored by Dr. Lindsay A. Rosenwald of Lawrence NY, in honor of his father, David ben Aharon ha'Levy Rosenwald of blessed memory.

*********************GIRSA SECTION*********************
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any *OTHER* important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos

[1] Gemara 43a [line 37]:
The word "*Ravach* Gamda Lei"
should be "Gamda Lei" (ARUCH -- see Dikdukei Sofrim #40)

1a) [line 3] KERU'AH - torn
b) [line 4] NEFULAH - that fell [from a height of at least ten Tefachim] (see Background to Chulin 42:3:b:6)
c) [line 4] SHEVURAH - shattered, smashed (this includes Ne'ekrah Tzela mi'Ikarah and Gulgoles she'Nechbesah -- see Background to Chulin 42:3:b:16, 17)

2) [line 6] MARAH - the Siman Tereifah of a pierced gallbladder (see Background to Chulin 42:3:b:1:f)

3) [line 7] NIKVAH HA'KEIVAH - the abomasum, the fourth stomach of ruminants, was pierced (see Background to Chulin 42:3:b:1:e)

4) [line 7] NIKVU HA'DAKIM - the small intestines were pierced (see Background to Chulin 42:3:b:1:g)

5) [line 9] HALACHOS CHAVER K'ZAYIS MARAH V'KURKEVAN SIMAN - this is a mnemonic device that stands for a word from the five Halachos that Rebbi Yitzchak b'Rebbi Yosef cited in the name of Rebbi Yochanan, as follows:

1. *Halachos* refers to "*Halachah* k'Rebbi Yosi b'Rebbi Yehudah (with regard to the Siman Tereifah of Nekuvas ha'Marah)" (line 11) (The word "Halachos" is plural since it serves a double purpose; the Siman refers to five *Halachos* and the first quote begins with the word "Halachah" -- YT)
2. *Chaver* refers to "Mai Ahadru Lei *Chavrei* l'Rebbi Yosi b'Rebbi Yehudah..." (line 12)
3. *k'Zayis* refers to "Halachah k'Divrei ha'Omer *k'Zayis*" (line 19)
4. *Marah* refers to "*Marah* she'Nikvah v'Chaved Sotamtah Kesheirah" (line 25)
5. *v'Kurkevan* refers to "Nikev *ha'Kurkevan* v'Kis she'Lo Kayam Kasher" (line 27)
6) [line 13] "YISHPOCH LA'ARETZ MERERASI" - "He has poured my gallbladder to the ground." (Iyov 16:13)

7) [line 16] "YIFALACH KILYOSAI V'LO YACHMOL" - "He has split open my kidneys and has shown no mercy" (Iyov 16:13) - This is included in the Tereifah known as "Lekusah," diseased kidneys (see Background to Chulin 42:3:b:14)

8) [line 17] "(RAK) [ACH] ES NAFSHO SHEMOR" - "but just guard his soul (i.e. do not kill him)" (Iyov 2:6)

9) [line 19] HALACHAH K'DIVREI HA'OMER K'ZAYIS - the Halachah follows the opinion that the animal is not a Tereifah only if a k'Zayis of the liver remains (NITAL HA'KAVED)
When the liver is completely removed with none of it remaining, the animal is a Tereifah (Mishnah Daf 42a). If a k'Zayis remains, the animal is Kesheirah, since the liver is able to regenerate (Mishnah 54a; see Chulin Illuminated by Rabbi Yaakov Dovid Lach, Hamesivta Publications, 5764, p. 160). The Tana'im and Amora'im argue (Daf 46a) as to the status of the animal if *less* than a k'Zayis of the liver remains.

10) [line 21] HALACHAH K'STAM MISHNAH - Rebbi Yochanan rules that the Halachah follows the opinion in a Mishnah that is recorded anonymously ("Stam," from the word "Sasam" - "to conceal")

11) [line 23] AMORA'EI NINHU V'ALIBA D'REBBI YOCHANAN - the Amora'im disagree about the opinion of Rebbi Yochanan

12) [line 25] MARAH SHE'NIKVAH V'CHAVED SOTAMTAH - the gallbladder was pierced and the liver closes up the hole (allowing the gallbladder to function normally)

13a) [line 27] NIKEV HA'KURKEVAN - the gizzard (the second stomach of a bird; ventriculus) is pierced
b) [line 27] V'CHIS SHELO KAYAM - but its pocket is intact (the gizzard is composed of an outer muscular part and an inner yellow membrane known as the Kis)

14) [line 32] D'IY CHALIF - such that if they are switched (a condition in which the outer and inner membranes of the esophagus are switched at any place on this organ)

15a) [line 36] VESHET D'ACHLAH VEI - the esophagus, with which it eats
b) [line 36] U'FAYA VEI - it becomes stretched because of its proximity to the trachea when the bird (a) crows or clucks (RASHI, 1st explanation); (b) breathes (RASHI, 2nd explanation)
c) [line 37] RAVACH - see Girsa Section
d) [line 37] GAMDA LEI - (O.F. retrait - contracts or contracted) it contracts it
e) [line 37] U'FASHTAH LEI - and it stretches it

16) [line 37] ZIMNIN D'MIHANDEZIN BAHADEI HADAEI - it happens that they (the two holes) coincide with each other

17) [line 42] KERUM SHE'ALAH MACHMAS MAKAH - a scab that forms due to a wound


18) [line 1] SAFEK DERUSAH - an animal about which there is a doubt if it was clawed by a preying animal or bird (see Daf 53b)

19) [line 3] ME'AVRAI - from the outside (only)
20) [line 5] ISHTAKACH ALEI TREI KURTEI DAMA V'TARFAH - he found on it (the inner, white membrane) two drops of blood and he declared it a Tereifah

21) [line 6] L'CHADUDEI L'ABAYEI HU D'VA'I - he only did it to sharpen Abaye's scholarship (so that he would ask)

22) [line 7] YASHAV LO KOTZ BA'VESHET - a thorn was [found] stuck in the esophagus

23) [line 7] EIN CHOSHESHIN SHEMA HIVRI - we do not worry lest (a) it was *punctured* (RASHI, 2nd explanation); (b) it was a puncture that *healed* (RASHI, 1st explanation); (c) it punctured the esophagus through to the *outside* of that organ (ARUCH)

24) [line 8] DARAS CHATICHOS B'SAKIN TEMEI'AH SIMAN - this is a mnemonic device that stands for a word from the four questions that the Gemara asks to refute Ula's Halachah, as follows:

1. *Daras* refers to "Mai Shena mi'Safek *Derusah*" (line 9)
2. *Chatichos* refers to "u'Mai Shena mi'Shenei *Chatichos*..." (line 10)
3. *b'Sakin* refers to "u'Mai Shena meha'Shochet *b'Sakin* v'Nimtza Pegumah" (line 12)
4. *Temei'ah* refers to "u'Mai Shena mi'Safek *Tum'ah* bi'Reshus ha'Yachid..." (line 14)
See Background to Chulin 41:25.

26) [line 12] HASAM ISCHAZEK ISURA - in that case there was a definite Isur (there was definitely a prohibited piece of fat)

27) [line 13] ISYALID LAH RE'USA B'SAKIN - in that case a defect was found in the knife after the Shechitah (RASHI)

(a) When there is a doubt as to whether an object is Tahor or Tamei, if the object is found in Reshus ha'Rabim the object is Tahor. If it is found in a private, concealed place, it is judged to be Tamei. During the winter a Bik'ah is a Reshus ha'Yachid and Sefeiko Tahor. During the summer it is a Reshus ha'Rabim and Sefeiko Tamei.
(b) This is learned from the case of the Sotah woman. In the case of a Sotah, where only two people were present at the time that there arose a question as to her status, she is judged Temei'ah/culpable and is prohibited to her husband. Similarly, whenever there are only two people present (i.e. a Reshus ha'Yachid l'Tum'ah), if a doubt arises regarding the status of a person or an object, he or it is judged to be Tamei. Whenever more than two people frequent a certain area, it is a Reshus ha'Rabim l'Tum'ah. If a doubt arises regarding the status of a person or an object, he or it is judged to be Tahor.

29) [line 17] HILCHESA GEMIREI LAH MI'SOTAH - we know this Halachah from the tradition that Moshe received on Mount Sinai ("Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai") with regared to the Sotah woman (see Background to Chulin 9:25)

30) [line 19] NIMTZEIS ITMAR - the Halachah of Ula was stated in a case where a thorn was only *found* in the esophagus; it was not stuck into it

31) [line 20] LO TATZISU LEI - do not listen to him
32) [line 21] KULHU CHEIVEI BARYASA KOTZEI ACHLAN - thorns are eaten by all of the animals that (a) graze *outside* of settlements (RASHI); (b) are *healthy* (RASHI to Daf 47a)

33) [line 22] TURBATZ HA'VESHET - the entrance of the esophagus

34a) [line 27] KOL SHE'CHOSCHO U'MARCHIV - the part that, when severed, will widen (this occurs at the part of the Turbatz ha'Veshet that is closest to the animal's mouth)
b) [line 28] CHOSCHO V'OMED BI'MEKOMO - (O.F. reides - hard) the part that, when severed, stays in its place (it neither folds upon itself nor widens)
c) [line 32] KOL SHE'CHOSCHO V'CHAVITZ - (O.F. retrait - contracts or contracted) the part that, when severed, folds upon itself

35) [line 32] YONAH AMAR ZEIRA - (a) *Yonah* (the name of a sage) said in the name of Zeira (another sage) (RASHI); (b) with regard to a *dove*, Zeira said [the following Halachah with regard to Turbatz ha'Veshet] (BEIS YOSEF YD 20)

36) [line 33] MAVLATA - the throat
37) [line 33] V'CHAMAH - and how much, i.e. how large is this area?
38) [line 34] TORA - bull
39) [line 45] MOSVINA TIYUVTA KELAPEI SAN'EI D'RAVA - I will ask a question of the enemies of Rava (a euphemism for Rava himself, since Mar brei d'Ravina intended to apply the verse "veha'Kesil ba'Choshech Holech" to the ruling of Rava)

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