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Chulin 40

CHULIN 37-40 - sponsored by Dr. Lindsay A. Rosenwald of Lawrence NY, in honor of his father, David ben Aharon ha'Levy Rosenwald of blessed memory.

1) [line 3] ZIVCHEI MESIM - "sacrifices of the dead," a term used for sacrifices to Avodah Zarah (Tehilim 106:28), which are Asurim b'Hana'ah, like a corpse

2a) [line 5] CHAMAH - sun
b) [line 6] LEVANAH- moon

3) [line 6] MICHAEL, HA'SAR HA'GADOL - the great angel, Michael (i.e. the biggest of HaSh-m's creations)

4) [line 7] SHILSHUL KATAN - a small worm (i.e. the smallest of HaSh-m's creations)
5) [line 9] GADA D'HAR - the angel that is in charge of that mountain
6) [line 11] REVUTZAH - lying down
7) [line 16] HA'SHOCHET CHATAS B'SHABBOS BA'CHUTZ LA'AVODAS KOCHAVIM - one who (b'Shogeg) slaughters a Korban Chatas (see Background to Menachos 61:16) on Shabbos outside of the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash for the purposes of idolatry

8) [last line] SHECHUTEI CHUTZ
(a) The Torah obligates a person to bring to the Beis ha'Mikdash all Kodshim that are fit to be offered as sacrifices, as it states in Vayikra 17:1-7. Besides the Mitzvas Aseh, there is a Lav prohibiting slaughtering them outside of the Azarah ("Shechutei Chutz") and burning them or parts of them outside of the Azarah ("Ha'ala'as Chutz"). In addition, the Tana'im learn (Sanhedrin 34b) that Zerikas ha'Dam (casting the blood) of a sacrifice outside of the Azarah is also prohibited. The punishment for transgressing these prohibitions is Kares (ibid. 17:9; SEFER HA'CHINUCH #186), and the animal remains Asur b'Hana'ah (i.e. it is prohibited to derive any benefit from it).
(b) Melikah is performed on all Bird Korbanos. If one were to perform *Shechitah* on a bird *outside* of the Beis ha'Mikdash, he has transgressed the prohibition of Shechutei Chutz. Performing Melikah outside of the Beis ha'Mikdash, however, is not included in the prohibition (Mishnah Zevachim 111a).


9) [line 2] CHATAS HA'OF
(a) The offering of the Chatas ha'Of (which is brought by a Zav and Zavah, by a Yoledes and Metzora who are poor, and by a poor person who was Nishba l'Sheker, or who transgressed Shevu'as ha'Edus, or was Metamei Mikdash v'Kodashav) consists of three procedures (see, for example, Vayikra 5:8-9): Melikah, Hazayah, and Mitzuy.

1. MELIKAH - Standing on the floor of the Azarah near the southwestern corner of the Mizbe'ach, the Kohen cuts the back of the neck of the bird with his right thumbnail. He makes sure to cut one Siman (either the trachea or the esophagus), but does not sever both Simanim ("v'Lo Yavdil" - Vayikra 5:8).
2. HAZAYAH - The Kohen sprinkles its blood on the Mizbe'ach (directly from the neck of the bird), below the Chut ha'Sikra (red line) that is located halfway up the Mizbe'ach.
3. MITZUY - The Kohen presses the cut neck of the bird to the Mizbe'ach and squeezes its remaining blood onto the Mizbe'ach.
(b) The Chatas ha'Of is eaten by the Kohanim, in the Azarah, on the day that it is offered and the following night. No part of it was burned on the Mizbe'ach ("Ein Mimenu la'Ishim").
(c) Since the Chatas ha'Of only needs one Siman to be cut during Melikah bi'Fnim, a bird becomes prohibited because of idolatry by the Shechitah ba'Chutz of one Siman at one and the same time that the person who slaughters it will be liable for Shechutei Chutz and slaughtering on Shabbos.

10) [line 8] KEGON SHE'HAYAH CHATZI KANEH PAGUM V'HOSIF ALAV KOL SHE'HU V'GAMRO - in a case where half of the trachea of the bird was defective (it had a slit in it already) and the Shochet added a little bit to the cut, finishing it (the Shechitah) [at the same time that he became liable for Shechutei Chutz and slaughtering on Shabbos]

11) [line 17] NA'ATZ SIMAN - this is a mnemonic device to remember the names of the three Amora'im who rule that "Ein Adam Oser Davar she'Eino she'Lo" - "A person cannot prohibit an item that does not belong to him," as follows:
1. Rav *N*achman; 2. Rav *A*mram; 3. Rav Yi*tz*chak

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