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Chulin 36

CHULIN 36 (6 Adar) - dedicated by the Feldman family in memory of their father, the Tzadik Harav Yisrael Azriel ben Harav Chaim (Feldman) of Milwaukee.

1) [line 1] ASIREI V'GIZAH VA'AVODAH - it is prohibited to shear them or to work with them

2) [line 3] DAM KILU'ACH - the blood that spurts out during the blood-letting of the animal

3) [line 4] HITIZ DAM AL HA'DELA'AS - and blood splashed onto a gourd of Terumah at the beginning of the Shechitah

4) [line 6] TOLIN - (a) we suspend our ruling [until the end of the Shechitah, when we will see if the blood has remained on the gourd until then]; (b) we suspend our ruling [forever, or until Eliyahu ha'Navi comes and tells us whether the gourd can be eaten or must be burned]

5) [line 12] NISKANE'ACH HA'DAM - if the blood was wiped off
6) [line 15] HAI DAM MAKAH HU - this is the blood of a wound, since the Shechitah was not finished before the blood was wiped off (see YOSEF DA'AS)

7) [line 19] ASHVU LAHADADEI - their opinions are similar
8) [line 25] LO OCHLIN V'LO SORFIN - we do not eat the gourd nor burn it (when the blood was wiped off before the end of the Shechitah, and then the gourd touched a source of Tum'ah)

9) [line 31] TZERID SHEL MENACHOS - (a) the dry, clumped parts of Menachos, flour-offerings, into which oil does not penetrate (RASHI); (b) the flour of Menachos, before the oil has been added, or Menachos that consist only of oil (TOSFOS); (c) the waste products of Menachos, such as bran and the like (ARUCH, cited by SHITAH MEKUBETZES #1)

10a) [line 33] L'IFSULEI GUFEI - to invalidate it; to prohibit it from being eaten
b) [line 35] "MI'KOL HA'OCHEL ASHER YE'ACHEL [ASHER YAVO ALAV MAYIM]" - "Regarding all food that is eaten [upon which water is brought (i.e. it must become wet after it is detached from the ground to receive Tum'ah)]" (Vayikra 11:34)


11a) [line 1] TUM'AS MES
(a) A k'Zayis of the flesh of a Mes (corpse) is an "Avi Avos ha'Tumah" and is Metamei through Maga (contact), Masa (carrying), and Ohel (being in the same room (lit. tent). An Ohel is defined as a covered space that is at least one Tefach in length, width and height. If a person becomes Tamei with Tum'as Mes, he must wait seven days to go to the Mikvah. Furthermore, on the third and seventh days he must have Mei Chatas (water mixed with ashes of the Parah Adumah -- see Background to Chulin 29:15) sprinkled on him.
(b) In an Ohel ha'Mes, the house or room becomes Tamei even if the Mes is passing through it and does not stop moving. A person who enters an Ohel ha'Mes becomes Tamei even if only a bit of his body enters, even when entering backwards. A Mechitzah (partition) in an Ohel ha'Mes only prevents the spread of Tum'ah if it reaches the ceiling. (RASH to Kelim 1:4)
(c) The bones of a Mes are only Metamei through Ohel under one of three conditions: 1. They constitute a quarter of a Kav (Rova ha'Kav); 2. They are the majority of the human body (whether they are the majority of the *build* (Rov Binyano) of the body or the majority of the *number* (Rov Minyano) of 248 bones; 3. The bone is a complete skull or a complete spinal column. In order to be Metamei through Maga and Masa, it is enough for the bone to be the size of a Se'orah (a grain of barley).
(d) When an object that can be Metamei b'Ohel is located in an Ohel, the Ohel makes everything in it Tamei and protects anything that is above it from becoming Tamei. That is, an Ohel is *Mevi* Tum'ah (spreads Tum'ah inside of it) and is *Chotzetz* from Tum'ah (intervenes between the Tum'ah and the space above the Ohel, preventing Tum'ah from spreading above it). If the object of Tum'ah in our Sugya is located below the tree, the branches above it create an Ohel over the Tum'ah.
(e) However, not all objects that cover Tum'ah are Mevi and Chotzetz. There are objects that are Mevi and not Chotzetz and other objects that are Chotzetz and not Mevi and even others that are neither Mevi nor Chotzetz (Ohalos 8:5). An object that is flying through the air, such as a bird or a Talis that is carried or caught up by the wind, is not an Ohel and is not Mevi or Chotzetz, even if it is one Tefach wide.

b) [line 2] TUM'AS SHERETZ
(a) A Sheretz (a crawling pest -- see Vayikra 11:29-38 and Background to Menachos 29:25), even if it or a part of it is only the size of an Adashah (lentil bean), is an Av ha'Tum'ah (Chagigah 11a). It makes a person or object Tamei at the level of a Rishon l'Tum'ah through Maga (contact), whether the Sheretz was touched willingly or unwillingly. The person who becomes Tamei by touching a Sheretz may not eat Terumah or Kodshim or enter the Azarah of the Beis Ha'Mikdash. However, he can immediately immerse in a Mikvah. After nightfall he becomes Tahor and may eat Terumah or Kodshim or enter the Azarah.
(b) In addition to Tum'as Maga, a dead Sheretz that is found in an earthenware oven makes the oven and all food or drink items that are in it Temei'im, whether the Sheretz touches them or not.

12) [line 13] HA'BOTZER LA'GAS - one who picks grapes for the winepress [that become wet from the juice that flows out of the grapes]
(a) Foods may become Temei'im if they touch a source of Tum'ah only if they were wetted at some point in their history. Making foods wet in a manner that enables them to become Temei'im is called "Hechsher." From then on, even after they dry, they can become Temei'im. Wetting food with any of seven liquids, water, dew, oil, wine, milk, blood, and honey, can enable the food to become Tamei.
(b) The food can become Tamei only if the owner of the food was *pleased* that his food became wet. This is learned from the verse, "v'Chi Yutan Mayim Al Zera..." - "If water has been placed on seed and then the dead body [of a Sheretz] fell upon it, the seed is Tamei" (Vayikra 11:38). The word "Yutan" in the verse is written without a Vav, just like the word "Yiten" -- "he places." However, according to the Mesorah, it is read "Yutan" -- "it was placed." From this we learn that when water or other liquids fall on the food it is considered Hechsher only if their presence is desirable to the owner of the food (i.e. it is as though he himself applied them).
(c) It is necessary only for the owner to desire the liquid; he need not desire that the liquid come into contact with the food. That is, even if the owner desires the liquid for an entirely different purpose, if the liquid later comes into contact with food it will enable the food to become Tamei. On the other hand, if the owner only intended to dispose of the liquid it does not enable the food to become Tamei, since only liquids that are significant can cause Hechsher.
(d) It is only considered "Ki Yiten" when the liquid falls upon an object, with the will of the owner, that is *detached* from the ground.
(e) Shamai and Hillel disagree as to whether the liquid that flows from the grapes at the time that they are picked is Machshir the grapes or not. Their argument applies to grapes that are being picked in order to press them into wine.

13) [line 14] SHASIK LEI HILLEL L'SHAMAI - Hillel relented (lit. was quiet) to Shamai

14) [line 24] "V'HA'BASAR ASHER YIGA B'CHOL TAMEI [LO YE'ACHEL, BA'ESH YISAREF; V'HA'BASAR, KOL TAHOR YOCHAL BASAR.]" - "Any [sacrificial] flesh that comes in contact with something Tamei [may not be eaten; it must be burned in fire; and as for the flesh, all who are Tahor shall eat of it.]" (Vayikra 7:19)

15a) [line 32] MASHKEI BEIS MITBECHAYA - the water that was used and the blood that was found in the slaughtering-area of the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash
(a) The Chachamim decreed that water is Metamei other objects, and that it is Machshir even b'Telushin (when the water has been removed from its source, such as a spring). However, this decree does not apply in the Mikdash.
(b) Blood never becomes Tamei since it is not a food. Even though it is usually Machshir other foods to become Tamei, the blood of sacrifices is not Machshir.

b) [line 32] LO DAYAN SHE'HEN DACHAN - not only are they Tehorim
c) [line 33] ELA SHE'EIN MACHSHIRIN - but they are not Machshirin

16) [line 34] TIRGEMA A'DAM - we may explain that this only refers to the blood in the Azarah (which is not Machshir, but water is Machshir)

17) [line 38] MASHKEH TOFE'ACH - moisture that remains on a surface (in this case, the water of the river)

18) [line 39] "VEHA'BASAR..." - see above, entry #14

19) [line 39] L'RABOS ETZIM U'LEVONAH - to include wood and frankincense See Background to Chulin 33:16.

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