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Chulin 35

1a) [line 1] D'LEIKA K'ZAYIS BI'CHEDEI ACHILAS PERAS - since a person who is eating Nezid ha'Dema will never eat a k'Zayis of Terumah in the time that it takes to eat a Peras (three or four Beitzim, see next entry) of the porridge itself (a) and will thus not be eating food that is prohibited to him (RASHI, 1st explanation); (b) and will thus not be eating Chulin ha'Na'asu Al Taharas Terumah at all, but rather ordinary Chulin, that do not need to be eaten b'Taharah (RASHI, 2nd explanation)

(a) The Torah specifies that a k'Zayis is the amount of food that constitutes a "Ma'aseh Achilah," the minimum Halachically-binding act of eating and digesting. A person who eats a k'Zayis of a food in order to fulfill a Mitzvah (such as Matzah) has fulfilled his requirement. Similarly, someone who eats a k'Zayis of a prohibited food (such as blood or Chelev), is punished for his act.
(b) The Torah also specifies (as a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai) the amount of time in which a k'Zayis must be eaten in order for the act to be considered a Ma'aseh Achilah. This amount of time, called a "Kedei Achilas Peras," is defined as the amount of time that it takes to eat three (according to Rebbi Yochanan ben Berokah) or four (according to Rebbi Shimon -- Eruvin 82b) Beitzim of bread with relish, while reclining. A person who eats a k'Zayis of Matzah in more than this amount of time has not fulfilled the Mitzvah, and a person who eats a k'Zayis of Isur in more than this amount of time is exempt from punishment.

2) [line 13] KODESH MEKUDASH - genuine Kodshim, such as the meat of a Korban

(a) A Zav (see Background to Zevachim 23:8a) can cause objects (other than Klei Cheres - earthenware objects) that are *under* him to become Avos ha'Tum'ah, whether he touches them or not. The objects become Tamei Midras (lit. an object that is treaded upon), otherwise known as Mishkav or Moshav ha'Zav (or the *Tachton*, of a Zav). An object that is under him becomes a Midras only if it was made for lying, sitting, or leaning upon.
(b) A person who *touches* (Maga) or *carries* (Masa) either a Midras or the Zav himself gets the status of Rishon l'Tum'ah, and so do the clothes he is wearing and other utensils (except for earthenware utensils) that he is touching at the time.
(c) Utensils or clothes that lie *above* the Zav also get the status of a Rishon l'Tum'ah, whether he touches them or not. These are called the *Elyon* of a Zav.
(d) The Chachamim decreed that the clothes of an Am ha'Aretz (an unlearned person who usually eats food that is Tamei) are considered by the Perushim (lit. separatists, exceptionally righteous people who usually eat their food b'Taharah) to be Tamei Midras.


4) [line 4] IM AMAR, "HIFRASHTI L'SOCHAH REVI'IS KODESH," NE'EMAN - if an Am ha'Aretz says, "I have separated into it (a barrel of wine of Terumah) a Revi'is of wine of Kodshim," he is believed [about the validity and Taharah of the Terumah as well as of the Kodshim] (During the year an Am ha'Aretz is trusted to keep wine and oil that are fit for use as Kodshim; however, he is only trusted thusly about Terumah during the time of the "Gitos and Badim," the time of the year when grapes and olives are pressed, respectively (grapes - Gitos (winepresses); olives - Badim (olive presses)). At those times, everyone is Metaher (purifies) their utensils under the supervision of the Chachamim -- RASHI to Chagigah 22a)

5) [line 7] TUM'AH B'CHIBURIN - Tum'ah of items that are touching each other (as in our case of wine of Terumah and of Kodshim that are in the same utensil)

6a) [line 10] METAMEI MASHKIN CHULIN - Metamei liquids of Chulin to make them a Rishon l'Tum'ah (see Background to Chulin 33:28)
b) [line 11] POSEL OCHELEI TERUMAH - and render foods of Terumah Pesulim (Terumah that is touched by a Sheni l'Tum'ah becomes a Shelishi l'Tum'ah. It cannot make other Terumah Temei'ah; however, it may not be eaten. It is referred to as "Pasul" (invalid) rather than "Tamei.")

7a) [line 11] METAMEI MASHKEH KODESH - it renders liquids of Kodshim Temei'im (such that they can, in turn, Metamei the Kodshim that they touch to become a Revi'i l'Tum'ah)
b) [line 12] POSEL OCHELEI KODESH - it renders foods of Kodshim Pesulim (items of Kodshim that are touched by a Shelishi l'Tum'ah can become a Revi'i, and may not be eaten. A Revi'i of Kodesh is also called "Pasul," and does not create a Chamishi l'Tum'ah.)

8a) [line 23] DAM HA'MES - the blood of an animal that died of natural causes
b) [line 25] DAM CHALALIM - the blood of an animal that was killed

9) [line 27] SALKA DA'ATACH AMEINA - (the Girsa in RASHI DH Salka Da'atach Ameina "d'Mah Li Katlah Ihu *Kulah*" should be "d'Mah Li Katlah Ihu *Kulei* (which was probably originally the letters Kaf, Vav and an apostrophe)," and refers to "d'Mah Li Katlah Ihu, Mah Li Katlah Malach ha'Maves," substituting "Kulei" for the second part of the phrase - YT)

10) [line 29] DAM MAGEFASO - the blood from an animal's wound
11) [line 34] MAH LI KATLEI KULAH MAH LI KATLEI PALGA? - What difference does it make if he kills the animal or wounds it? (lit. if he kills it entirely or if he kills it partially)

12) [line 36] "V'DAM CHALALIM YISHTEH" - "and it drinks the blood of those it has killed" (Bamidbar 23:24) - The word "Yishteh" compares blood with the liquids that bring about Hechsher Ochalin (see Background to Chulin 31:18).

13) [line 37] "AL HA'ARETZ TISHPECHENU KA'MAYIM" - "you shall spill it (the blood) on the ground like water" (Devarim 12:16, 24, 15:23)

14) [line 37] L'MISHREI DAMAN DI'PESULEI HA'MUKDASHIN B'HANA'AH - to permit benefit from the blood of the Pesulei ha'Mukdashim (PESULEI HA'MUKDASHIM)
(a) Pesulei ha'Mukdashin are Korbanos that became unfit to be offered upon the Mizbe'ach because of a Mum (blemish). After they are redeemed, it is still forbidden to work with them ("Avodah") or to shear them ("Gizah"). The milk they produce is also forbidden. They are only permitted to be eaten after being slaughtered (Bechoros 15b). Our Gemara shows that one may benefit from their blood, as learned from the verse in the previous entry.
(b) The Mishnah in Bechoros (5:1) states that Pesulei ha'Mukdashin may be sold in the marketplace and weighed with a Roman Libra, a pound. These acts are normally considered unfitting for Kodshim, and are prohibited to be done to a Bechor (see Background to Chulin 17:39).

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