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Chulin 27

CHULIN 27 - Sponsored through the generous contribution of Reb Uri Wolfson and family. May he continue to see his children grow in Torah and Yir'as Shamayim, following in the footsteps of their illustrious parents and grandparents, Shlit'a.

*****PEREK #2 HA'SHOCHET*****

1) [line 1] HA'SHOCHET ECHAD BA'OF U'SHENAYIM BI'VEHEMAH - one who performs Halachic Shechitah by cutting [at least] one Siman of a bird and two of an animal (SHECHITAH)
(a) The laws of Shechitah (proper ritual slaughter) that permit an animal to be eaten are a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai, a tradition that was handed down to us from Moshe at Har Sinai (Chulin 28a, based on Devarim 12:21).
(b) There are two "Simanim," or parts of the animal that must be sliced through when performing Shechitah: the Kaneh (trachea) and the Veshet (esophagus). When slaughtering a bird, cutting one Siman is sufficient for a Kosher Shechitah. Five of the most important laws of Shechitah are the following:

1. "Shehiyah" - One may not "pause" in middle of a Shechitah.
2. "Derasah" - One may not "press" the knife into the neck, but must use a sliding, cutting motion.
3. "Chaladah" - One may not insert the knife into the middle of the thickness of the neck and cut the Simanim from there.
4. "Hagramah" - One may not cut the Simanim such that part of the cut "slants" above the point that delimits the part of the neck upon which Shechitah may be performed.
5. "Ikur" - One may not "rip out" the Simanim from the neck and then cut them. Similarly, one may not cause the Simanim to tear during Shechitah, such as by cutting them with a dull blade.
2) [line 4] HA'VERIDIN - (a) the carotid arteries (RAMBAM, Peirush ha'Mishnayos); (b) the jugular veins (see DARCHEI TESHUVAH 65:6)

3) [line 10] KaMa"SH SIMAN - this is a mnemonic device to remember the names of the three Amora'im who propose sources in the Torah for the law that Shechitah is performed at the neck, as follows:

  1. Rav *K*ahana (line 10)
  2. Rav Yei*m*ar (line 21)
  3. d'Vei Rebbi Yi*sh*mael (line 28)
4) [line 12] MI'MAKOM SHE'SHACH, CHATEHU - from the place where it *bends*, (a) [ritually] *purify* it, to render it fit to be eaten; (b) *clean* it (by extracting the blood)

5) [line 13] LISHNA D'DECHUYEI - (a) a term that refers to cleansing; (b) according to the Girsa (DIKDUKEI SOFRIM #2; see RASHI DH Chatehu) "LISHNA *D'ACHSHUREI*" - a term that refers to rendering ritually fit to be eaten

6) [line 14] "V'CHITEI ES HA'BAYIS" - "and he shall purify the house" (Vayikra 14:52) - It seems obvious that this verse has been brought to prove that "Chatehu" is a "Lishna d'Achshurei" (see previous entry).

7) [line 15] "TECHAT'ENI V'EZOV V'ETHAR" - "Purge me with a hyssop and I will become pure" (Tehilim 51:9) - Ezov (hyssop) was used in various purification rituals (see Vayikra 14:4-6, 49-52).

8) [line 17] DAM HA'NEFESH - the blood that spurts out upon the animal's slaughter

9a) [line 18] SHEHIYAH - pausing [in the middle of a Shechitah]
b) [line 19] DERASAH - pressing [the knife into the neck]
c) [line 19] CHALADAH - concealing or inserting [the knife into the middle of the thickness of the neck and cutting the Simanim from there]
d) [line 19] HAGRAMAH - cutting at a slant (cutting the Simanim such that part of the cut "slants" above the point that delimits the part of the neck upon which Shechitah may be performed)
e) [line 19] IKUR - ripping out [the Simanim from the neck and then cutting them. Similarly, one may not cause the Simanim to tear during Shechitah, such as by cutting them with a dull blade.]

10) [line 19] GEMARA - we know this Halachah from the tradition that Moshe received on Mount Sinai ("Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai")

11) [line 21] D'LO L'SHAVYEI GISTERA - (a) to not cut the neckbone into two (or any other part of the body that causes a mortal injury) (RASHI, 1st explanation); (b) to not press the knife into the neck ("Dores" -- see above, entry #1:b:2) (see RASHI, 2nd explanation)

12) [line 22] MI'MAKOM SHE'ZAV, CHATEHU - from the place where its blood flows, break it, i.e. cut it

13) [line 23] LISHNA D'MISBAR - a term that refers to breaking
14) [line 24] "AL TIRA V'AL TECHAS" - "do not fear and do not be broken" (Devarim 1:21)

15) [line 24] CHOTMO - its nose
16) [line 30] MI'MAKOM SHE'SACH, CHATEHU - from the place where it "speaks," generates sound, cut it

17) [line 37] "V'ARCHU BENEI AHARON HA'KOHANIM ES HA'NESACHIM, ES HA'ROSH V'ES HA'PADER" - "and the sons of Aharon, the Kohanim, shall arrange the pieces [of the dismembered burnt offering], the head and the Pader-fat" (Vayikra 1:8) - The Pader is the fatty intestinal membrane that divides the intestines from the stomachs (RAMBAN to Vayikra 1:8)

18) [line 40] "V'HIFSHIT ES HA'OLAH V'NITACH OSAH LI'NESACHEHA" - "And he shall skin the burnt offering, and he shall cut it into sections" (Vayikra 1:6) (HEFSHET AND NITU'ACH)
After the Korban Olah (burnt offering) is slaughtered, it is skinned (Hefshet) and dismembered (Nitu'ach). The Kohanim responsible for its offering all stand in one line; the first Kohen receives the head and the Pader in his right hand and the right hind leg in his left hand. The Pader is placed over the animal's neck, covering the place where the animal was slaughtered. The Kohanim take the sections of the animal to the Kevesh (the ramp of the Mizbe'ach) where they are salted. Afterwards, they are taken to the top of the Mizbe'ach to be offered. (The entire precession of the Kohanim in the offering of the Korban ha'Tamid is recorded below, entry #20.)

19) [line 42] HA'ROSH, SHE'KEVAR HUTAZ - the head, which has already been severed

20) [line 43] "[V']ES ROSHO V'ES PIDRO, V'ARACH..." - "[and] its head and its Pader-fat, and he shall arrange..." (Vayikra 1:12) (HAKRAVAS KORBAN TAMID)
(a) The Korban Tamid, a communal offering (Korban Tzibur), consists of two male sheep that are less than one year old. One sheep is offered at dawn and the second sheep is offered in the afternoon, ideally 2 1/2 Halachic hours before sunset. One tenth of an Eifah (approximately 2.16, 2.49 or 4.32 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of flour is brought with each sheep as a Minchah (flour offering), which is mixed with one quarter of a Hin (approximately 0.9, 1.04 or 1.8 liters) of hand pressed olive oil. One quarter of a Hin of wine for each sheep is brought as a wine libation (Bamidbar 28:5).
(b) To insure that at least two sheep are available for the Korban Tamid each day, six sheep were kept in the Lishkas ha'Tela'im, the Chamber of Lambs (TY # 43, also known as the Lishkas ha'Korban or Lishkas Tela'ei Korban). The lambs were checked to ensure that they had no Mum (blemish).
(c) The Korbenos Tamid are Olos, which are dismembered and burned entirely on the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon. The Mishnah (Tamid 31a-b) states that thirteen Kohanim were employed to carry out the offering of the Korban Tamid (see below, (d)). In addition, after six of them carry the parts of the animal to the Kevesh (ramp) of the Mizbe'ach and place them there, other Kohanim would throw them from the Kevesh onto the bonfire on top of the Mizbe'ach. This procedure is a result of the verse, "b'Rov Am Hadras Melech" - "With a multitude of people is the King glorified" (Mishlei 14:28).
(d) The Mishnah (ibid.) lists the order of the Kohanim who perform the service:

1. The Kohen who slaughters the animal
2. The Kohen who collects the blood into a Kli Shares (a sanctified utensil) and performs Zerikas ha'Dam (casting the blood on the Mizbe'ach)
3. The one who cleans out the ashes of the Mizbe'ach ha'Penimi
4. The one who cleans out the ashes of the Menorah
5. The one who carries the head (with the cut neck covered by the Peder) in his right hand and the right hind leg in his left hand
6. The one who carries the right foreleg in his right hand and the left foreleg in his left hand
7. The one who carries the hind quarters (including the fat tail, the gall bladder and the kidneys) in his right hand and the left hind leg in his left hand
8. The one who carries the Chazeh (chest) in his right hand and the Geirah (neck) in his left hand
9. The one who carries the Dofen Yemin (the right side with the upper ribs) in his right hand and the Dofen Semol (the left side with the upper ribs) in his left hand
10. The one who carries the Kirbayim (innards) in a pan, with the Kera'ayim (feet) on top
11. The one who carries the Minchas Nesachim
12. The one who carries the Minchas Chavitin
13. The one who carries the wine libation.
21) [line 49] SHE'KODMIN L'CHOL HA'NESACHIM - that precede all other pieces [of the burnt offering]


22) [line 5] "ZOS TORAS HA'BEHEMAH VEHA'OF..." - "This is the law of the animals and the birds..." (Vayikra 11:46)

23) [line 6] BEHEMAH METAM'AH B'MAGA UV'MASA - animals cause things to become Tamei through touching them and carrying them (ISUR ACHILAS NEVEILAH)
A Neveilah is a carcass of a Kosher animal that died without a Halachic slaughtering (or that was slaughtered improperly). The Torah states, "You shall not eat anything that dies by itself (Neveilah). You shall give it to the stranger who is in your gates, that he may eat it, or you may sell it to a Nochri, for you are a holy people to HaSh-m, your Elokim." (Devarim 14:21). A person who eats a k'Zayis of Neveilah is liable to Malkus (RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'achalos Asuros 4:1) and a k'Zayis or more of a Neveilah makes a person or an object Tamei through Maga (contact). It is Metamei a Keli Cheres (an earthenware utensil) if it enters the utensil's interior and is Metamei a person with Tum'as Masa (by carrying it) to cause him, in turn, to be Metamei the clothes that he is wearing (RAMBAM Hilchos She'ar Avos ha'Tum'ah 1:1).

(a) Normally, items that are Tamei spread Tum'ah through touching them or carrying them ("Maga" or "Masa"). The only object that is Metamei mid'Oraisa *while being eaten* is Nivlas Of Tahor (the carcass of a Kosher bird). Nivlas Of Tahor is a kosher bird that died or was killed without Shechitah. (This includes a bird that is unfit to be brought as a Korban upon which Melikah was performed.) It is *only* Metamei while in the Beis ha'Beli'ah (throat), during the process of being swallowed.
(b) A Nivlas Of Tahor is Metamei the person eating it, as well as any clothes or utensils that he is touching at the time that it is in his throat, giving them the status of "Rishon l'Tum'ah." (Once it is swallowed, the person remains Tamei, but is only Metamei food and drinks, i.e. he is a Rishon l'Tum'ah).

25) [line 29] "HA'TZON U'VAKAR... YE'ASEF LAHEM" - "Shall the flocks and the herds be slaughtered for them, to suffice them? or shall all the fish of the sea be gathered for them, to suffice them?" (Bamidbar 11:22)

26) [line 30] ASIFA - gathering
27) [line 31] "VA'YA'ASFU ES HA'SELAV" - "and they gathered the quail" (Bamidbar 11:32)

28) [line 34] OVER GELILA'AH - (a) a wandering scholar from the Galilee; (b) according to the Girsa "*OVED* GELILA'AH" - Oved, the Galilean, the name of a scholar (SEDER HA'DOROS)

29) [line 35] REKAK - a pool of water (O.F. gravele - gravel [that is covered with water]); alluvial mud

30) [line 36] RAV SHMUEL KAPOTKA'AH - Rav Shmuel from Cappadocia, a district of Asia Minor

31) [line 36] KASKESES - scales
32) [line 37] V'OD SHA'ALO - and he asked him further (This refers to the questions of Kontrikon the Viceroy, who asked many questions in a debate with (a) Raban Gamliel (RASHI); or (b) Rebbi Yochanan ben Zakai (TOSFOS). Many of his questions are recorded in Bechoros 5a.)

33) [line 37] "YISHRETZU HA'MAYIM SHERETZ NEFESH CHAYAH" - "Let the water teem with a multitude of living creatures" (Bereishis 1:20)

34) [line 42] LASHON ACHER - the alternate (lit. other) answer
35) [line 42] HEGMON - the district commander; viceroy

(a) The laws of Shechitah (proper ritual slaughter) that permit an animal to be eaten were handed down to us through a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai (Chulin 28a, based on Devarim 12:21).
(b) There is a Machlokes as to whether these laws apply to birds as well. Those who maintain that the Torah (and the Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai) does *not* require that a bird be slaughtered learn this from the verse that states, "and he shall spill its blood" (Vayikra 17:13), which implies that spilling alone is sufficient (Chulin 27b). Even according to this opinion, a bird is permitted by the Torah only if it is killed by a person with a blow that severs the trachea or esophagus (RASHI to Chulin 27b DH Ein Shechitah).

37) [line 44] "V'SHAFACH ES DAMO" - "and he shall spill its blood" (Vayikra 17:13)

38) [line 45] ISKASH LI'PESULEI HA'MUKDASHIN - it (the Chayah, non-domesticated Kosher animals) is compared to Pesulei ha'Mukdashin, Korbanos that became unfit for being offered, in the verse, "Ach Ka'asher Ye'achel Es ha'Tzevi v'Es ha'Ayal Ken Tochalenu..." - "Just as the deer and the gazelle are eaten, so may you eat it (Pesulei ha'Mukdashin)..." (Devarim 12:22)

39) [line 47] SIMAN NISNABEL DAM BI'MELIKAH - this is a mnemonic device that stands for a word from the three Sugyos brought by the Gemara to prove "Yesh Shechitah l'Of Min ha'Torah"

  1. *Nisnabel* refers to "ha'Shochet *v'Nisnablah* b'Yado..." (line 47)
  2. *Dam* refers to "ha'Shochet v'Tzarich *l'Dam*..." (last line)
  3. *bi'Melikah* refers to "*Malak* b'Sakin..." (Daf 28a, line 3)
40) [line 47] HA'SHOCHET V'NISNABLAH B'YADO - one who slaughters an animal and causes it to become a Neveilah (for example, the knife was blemished)

41) [line 48] HA'NOCHER (NECHIRAH)
Nechirah refers to killing an animal not by Shechitah, by rather by sticking a knife into its nostrils ("Necherei") and cutting its throat, all the way down to its chest (RASHI to Chulin 17a, DH veha'Nocher, and to Bava Kama 78b DH ha'Nocher). (Although Rashi later (Daf 85b, DH Nochro) explains that Nechirah involves "strangling" the animal, it is clear from Rashi's words on the Mishnah (Daf 15b, DH she'Hem) that "strangling" refers to any form of asphyxiation, including the tearing of the animal's trachea. See also ARUCH Erech Nachar, and RASHBA in Teshuvos (3:363).)

42) [line 48] HA'ME'AKER - one who tears apart the Simanim and detaches them from their root, killing the animal

43) [line 48] PATUR MIL'CHASOS - he is exempt from performing the Mitzvah of Kisuy ha'Dam (KISUY HA'DAM)
There is a Mitzvah to cover the blood of all birds and non-domesticated Kosher animals (Chayos) that are slaughtered, as it states in Vayikra (17:13) "v'Ish Ish... Asher Yatzud Tzeid Chayah O Of Asher Ye'achel, v'Shafach Es Damo v'Chisahu b'Afar" - "And any person... who shall capture game consisting of non-domesticated Kosher animals, or Kosher birds that are eaten, he shall spill its blood and cover it with earth." The blood must be covered from above and below with earth or any similar granular substance.

44) [line 49] NECHIRASO ZU HI SHECHITASO - its Nechirah (see above, entry #41) is its Shechitah (that is, before the Mitzvah of Shechitah was given, the act of Nechirah served as the proper manner of slaughtering an animal)

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