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Chulin 26

CHULIN 26 - This Daf has been sponsored by Dr. and Mrs. Shalom Kelman of Baltimore, Maryland, USA. May Hashem bless them with long years filled with Torah, Chidushei Torah, and Nachas!

1a) [line 9] SHELOSHES LUGIN MAYIM CHASER KORTOV - three Lugin of water missing one Kortov (MAYIM SHE'UVIN)
(a) Drawn water is called Mayim She'uvin. Only water that never entered a vessel (non-drawn water) may be used to fill a Mikvah. Once there are already 40 Se'in of non-drawn water in the Mikvah, drawn water may be added. However, if before there are 40 Se'ah in the Mikvah three Lugin of drawn water fall into it, they render the Mikvah invalid.
(b) If three Lugin of Mayim She'uvin minus one Kortov (see next entry) are in a container, and one Kortov of wine falls in, they do not invalidate the Mikvah. If one Kortov of milk falls in, the Rabanan rule that they also do not invalidate the Mikvah, since there are not a full three Lugin of Mayim She'uvin, even though the mixture looks like water. Rebbi Yochanan ben Nuri, who rules that the only criterion is the appearance, argues with the Rabanan, ruling that the water and milk mixture does invalidate the Mikvah.

b) [line 10] CHASER KORTOV - missing one Kortov (MEASURES OF CAPACITY: LIQUIDS) (a) Equivalents of the volume of liquids used in the Gemara:

  • 1 Bas (Efah) = 3 Se'in
  • 1 Se'ah = 2 Hinin
  • 1 Hin (Tarkav) = 12 Lugin
  • 1 Log = 4 Revi'i'os = 6 Beitzim = 64 Kortovim
  • 1 Revi'is = 75, 86.4 or 150 ml, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions
(b) Modern-day equivalents:
  • 1 Se'ah = 7.2, 8.29 or 14.4 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions, therefore:
  • 1 Hin = 3.6, 4.145 or 7.2 ml
  • 1 Log = 0.3, 0.345 or 0.6 ml
  • 1 Kortov = 0.004, 0.005, or 0.009 ml
2) [line 15] BASAR CHAZUSA AZLINAN - we rule according to appearance
3) [line 17] U'FELIGA D'REBBI ELAZAR - and the opinion of Rav Nachman in the name of Rabah bar Avuha, that the Tana'im of the Mishnah (Ma'asros 5:6, cited at the end of Daf 25b) argue when the Temed had fermented, disagrees with the opinion of Rebbi Elazar

4) [line 18] EIN MAFRISHIN ALAV MI'MAKOM ACHER - we are not permitted to separate Terumos and Ma'asros from elsewhere (from another batch of Temed) [unless this batch of Temed has fermented, at which point it is considered "Peira," "fruit" (for which Terumos and Ma'asros must be separated)]


5) [line 1] MASHIKO V'MAYIM - one may perform on it Hashakah in water [of a Mikvah] (HASHAKAH)
(a) When one sinks a container containing water (or snow) that is Tamei into a valid Mikvah such that the water of the Mikvah flows over the rim of the container and touches the water inside of the container, the water inside of the container becomes Tahor. By touching the waters of the Mikvah, the water of the container has become "attached" or "planted" in the Tahor waters of the Mikvah, making the water in the container Tahor as well. This can be compared to the manner in which seeds that are Tamei can become Tahor by being planted in the ground (RASHI to Beitzah 17a DH v'Shavin; Gemara Pesachim 34b).
(b) Hashakah in a Mikvah can only be Metaher water, not other foods or liquids. The reason for this is that when Tamei water is touched to waters of a Mikvah, since they are the same material, the former can be considered to be "planted in," i.e. fully attached to, the latter. Any other material cannot become one with the waters of the Mikvah, and therefore it cannot become Tahor through Hashakah (RASHI to Nidah 17a DH Nit'har).

6) [line 2] SHE'TAMDO B'MAYIM TEHORIM V'NITME'U - he used water that was Tahor to make the batch of Temed, and the mixture became Tamei afterwards (since Rava rules that water that is Tamei must have Hashakah performed on it by itself; once it is used to make Temed, Hashakah will no longer work -- TOSFOS DH Hacha)

7) [line 4] BEI KASIL - the name of a place
8a) [line 5] AIDI D'MAYA YAKIREI, SHACHNEI TATA'EI - since the specific gravity of water is greater than that of wine, the water rests at the bottom of the utensil
b) [line 6] U'FEIRA KAFI MIL'EIL - and the wine (lit. fruit [juice]) floats above it

9) [line 8] MEVALBELEI - they get mixed together (and the water is also at the top when Hashakah is performed)

A destitute father, under certain circumstances, may sell his daughter into servitude to a Jewish master as long as she is a minor. The sale is for a period of six years or until she becomes a Gedolah (when two pubic hairs grow after she enters her 12th year) or until the Yovel year (the year after seven Shemitah cycles), whichever comes first. During this period she is called an "Amah ha'Ivriyah." This follows the opinion of the Chachamim. Rebbi Meir rules that as long as a person is entitled to receive Kenas for his daughter (see next entry) he may not sell her as an Amah ha'Ivriyah.

11) [line 10] KENAS (ONES / PITUY)
(a) ONES - If a man rapes a girl (between the ages of 12 and 12 1/2, according to Rebbi Meir, or between the ages of 3 and 12 1/2, according to the Chachamim -- Kesuvos 29a), he must pay her father a fine of fifty Shekalim, as stated in the Torah (Devarim 22:28). This amount is the equivalent of a Kesuvah (dowry) of a virgin and is in addition to the payments of Pegam, Boshes and Tza'ar (Kesuvos 39a; see Background to Shevuos 33:10:1, 2, 5). The man must also marry the girl and never divorce her, if the girl wishes to be his wife.
(b) MEFATEH - If a man seduces a girl (between the ages of 12 and 12 1/2, according to Rebbi Meir, or between the ages of 3 and 12 1/2, according to the Chachamim -- Kesuvos 29a), and the girl or her father refuses to let him marry her, or if the man chooses not to marry her, he must give the father of the girl fifty Shekalim. This amount is the equivalent of a Kesuvah of a virgin and is in addition to the payments of Pegam and Boshes (see Background to Shevuos 33:10:1, 5; the seducer does not pay the payment of Tza'ar -- Kesuvos 39b). If he chooses to marry her and they consent, the man is not obligated to pay anything to the girl or to her father at the time of the marriage. If he later divorces her, he must give her the Kesuvah of a virgin upon her divorce (Shemos 22:16).

A girl is a Ketanah (minor) until she has two pubic hairs after she enters her twelfth year. During the following six months she is a Na'arah (maidenhood). When six months elapse she becomes a Bogeres (adult).

13) [line 19] MI'UN
(a) The Torah gives a father the right to marry off his daughter at any age before she is twelve years old.
(b) If she was divorced or widowed or her father died without marrying her off, the Chachamim gave the girl's mother and/or oldest brother the right to marry her off. In these cases the marriage is only mid'Rabanan and she must be at least ten years old, or at least six years old if she has an understanding of the concept of marriage.
(c) According to the RAMBAM and the RA'AVAD, in the above circumstances, the Chachamim also gave *her* the right to get married by herself. This marriage is also mid'Rabanan. According to the Rambam, she must be at least ten years old, or at least six years old if she has an understanding of the concept of marriage. According to the Ra'avad, however, her Kidushin is valid even if she has enough sense to guard the object given to her for her Kidushin (and she realizes that it was given to her for Kidushin).
(d) In the instances of marriage mid'Rabanan, before she reaches Halachic puberty and becomes a Na'arah (through the growth of two pubic hairs), she has the option of annulling the marriage through a procedure known as Mi'un (refusal). She says before two witnesses, "I do not want him," and the marriage is annulled retroactively. There is no need for her to receive a Get (a bill of divorce). A girl who is married off by her father cannot annul the marriage through Mi'un. (RAMBAM Hilchos Ishus 4:7-8)

14) [line 19] CHALITZAH
(a) If a married man dies childless and has brothers who survive him, his widow (or widows) may not remarry until one of the deceased husband's brothers performs Yibum (levirate marriage) or Chalitzah (levirate release) with the widow (or one of the widows), as it states in Devarim 25:5-10. Chazal learn from the verses that if there are a number of brothers, there is a preference for the oldest brother to perform Yibum or Chalitzah (Yevamos 24a). If the conditions for the Mitzvah of Yibum do not exist, marital relations between a man and his brother's wife are prohibited and make them liable to the punishment of Kares.
(b) Yibum is a type of marriage. Unlike ordinary Kidushin, though, it can be accomplished only through Bi'ah and not through Kesef or Shtar (see Background to Kidushin 2:1:II:b). Nevertheless, the Rabanan instituted that one should precede Yibum with an act similar to Kidushei Kesef or Shtar, which is known as Ma'amar (see Background to Nedarim 74:4). The Bi'ah must be performed with the intention of fulfilling the Mitzvah.
(c) If the brother chooses not to marry her, he must perform Chalitzah (a procedure in Beis Din that absolves her of the Mitzvah of Yibum - ibid.). He appears before a Beis Din of three (but see Insights to Yevamos 101:2) and states, "I do not want to marry her," after which his sister-in-law approaches him before the elders, takes off his right sandal and spits in front of him. She then declares, "This is what shall be done to the man who will not build up a family for his brother," and she is then free to marry whomever she wants.

15) [line 22] AD SHE'YIRBEH HA'SHACHOR AL HA'LAVAN - until she has an abundance of pubic hair. The Gemara (Nidah 52a) and RASHI (here DH Ad) explain that this means (a) that the two hairs must have grown long enough to be easily visible; (b) that the two hairs are long enough to span the width of Oso Makom

The Chachamim instituted the practice of sounding a Shofar on Erev Shabbos in order to proclaim the coming of Shabbos. Certain blasts of the Shofar cause the people to cease from work in the fields. Closer to Shabbos, the Shofar blasts announce the imminent arrival of Shabbos. This practice is still upheld today, where sirens are sounded in certain cities in Eretz Yisrael to announce the coming of the Shabbos.

17) [line 23] HAVDALAH - the Mitzvah of Havdalah, the ceremony *separating* Shabbos and Yom Tov from the other days of the week. Our Gemara specifically refers to the Havdalah recitation between Shabbos and Yom Tov, which is only performed when Shabbos precedes Yom Tov. When Yom Tov precedes Shabbos, no Havdalah is recited

18a) [line 26] HEICHI TOKE'A? - How does one perform the blasts of the Shofar [on Yom Tov that immediately precedes Shabbos -- RASHI]?
b) [line 26] MERI'A MI'TOCH TEKI'AH - he blow a Teru'ah, short blasts of the Shofar, *connected to* the Teki'ah, which is a long blast of the Shofar

19) [line 27] HUTZAL - a city in Bavel, located between Sura and Neharde'a, that was walled from the time of Yehoshua bin Nun, where members of the tribe of Binyamin may have settled after they were taken into exile

20) [line 34] B'EMTZA SHABBOS - in the middle of the week

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