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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Chagigah 3

CHAGIGAH 3 - Sponsored by the Sugerman families of Montclair, New Jersey and Boca Raton, Florida in memory of: Malka bat Chaim, Dov Beryl ben Eliezer, Genendal bat Mordechai Mechayel, and Israel ben Shmuel.



(a) We learn from the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' "Re'iyah" "Re'iyah" from Hakheil - that a deaf and a dumb person are Patur from Re'iyah, just like they are Patur from the Mitzvah of Hakheil.

(b) We learn from the Pasuk in va'Yeilech "Lema'an Yishme'u", that a deaf person is Patur from Hakheil. We initially learn from "Lema'an Yilmedu" - that someone who is dumb is also Patur from "Re'iyah" (because, we currently contend, he cannot learn).

(c) We repudiate this Derashah from the story of the two dumb nephews of Rebbi Yochanan ben Gudgoda (or of Rebbi) - who would sit in front of Rebbi and nod their heads as he taught Torah.

(d) After Rebbi prayed for them to be healed, they were found to be conversant in Hilchesa, Sifra and Sifri.

1. Hilchesa means - Mishnah.
2. They had also mastered - Shas.
(a) In fact, we Darshen "Lema'an Yilmedu" to mean - not "in order that they should *learn*, but "in order that they should *teach*", to preclude a dumb person, who is certainly unable to teach.

(b) According to Rav Ashi, even without the story of the two dumb nephews of Rebbi Yochanan ben Gudgoda, "Lema'an Yilmedu" cannot be taken literally (as we at first contended). It *must* mean that they must be able to teach ("Lema'an Yelameidu") - because, if it meant to learn ("Lema'an Yilmedu" - and whoever cannot speak cannot learn), then we would know that already from "Lema'an Yishme'u (because, if he cannot hear, he certainly cannot learn), so why does the Torah need to repeat "Lema'an Yilmedu", to teach us the same thing again. Now however, that we assume that someone who cannot speak is able to learn (and that he is not Patur from Re'iyah for that reason, we need an independent Pasuk to exempt him).

(c) Rebbi Tanchum learns (with regard to Re'iyah - via the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' "Re'iyah" "Re'iyah" from Hakheil) from "be'Ozneihem" - that someone who is deaf in one ear is Patur from Re'iyah.

(d) We learn (with regard to Hakheil) from ...

1. ... "Neged Kol Yisrael" - that the king must read the Torah in the presence of all Yisrael.
2. ... "Lema'an Yishme'u" - that they must be close enough to hear him.
(a) Rebbi Tanchum learns from ...
1. ... "Shalosh Regalim" - a man who is lame in one leg is Patur from Re'iyah.
2. ... "Shalosh Pe'amim" - that someone who has a stump instead of a foot is Patur from Re'iyah.
3. ... "Teramasnah Regel, Raglei Ani, Pa'amei Dalim" - that "Pe'amim" means feet.
4. ... "Mah Yafu Pe'amayich ba'Ne'alim Bas Nediv" - that "Pe'amim" relates to a foot on which one normally wears shoes.
(b) Rava Darshens from "Mah Yafu Pe'amayich ba'Ne'alim" - as Hashem's praise of K'lal Yisrael: 'How lovely are the feet of Yisrael when they go to Yerushalayim on Yom-Tov'.

(c) "Bas Nediv" refers to Avraham Avinu. We learn this from the Pasuk in Tehilim "Nedivei Amim Ne'esafu Am Elokei Avraham". Avraham (and not Yitzchak and Ya'akov) is referred to as 'Nediv' - because he was the first to (volunteer to) become a Ger.

(d) Rebbi Tanchum infers that there were snakes and scorpions in the pit into which the brothers threw Yosef - from the phrase "Ein Bo Mayim" (which, having already written "ve'ha'Bor Reik", is redundant).

(a) Rebbi Yochanan ben Berokah and Rebbi Elazar Chisma were reluctant to tell Rebbi Yehoshua what Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah had Darshened in the Beis ha'Medrash the previous day. Rebbi Yehoshua insisted they tell him, adding 'Shabbos shel Mi Haysah'? What he meant was - 'Was it the turn of Raban Gamliel (after he had been re-instated as Nasi) to Darshen, or that of Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah (who had re-placed him during the period that he was deposed), since, after Raban Gamliel's re-instatement, they took it in turns to Darshen (one week the latter, two or three weeks, the former)'.

(b) Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah Darshened from the Pasuk "Hakheil es ha'Am, *ha'Anashim, ve'ha'Nashim ve'ha'Taf*" - the men, to learn (which for them, is an intrinsic Mitzvah), the women, to hear (their obligations), and the children (who have not yet reached the age of Chinuch - see Agados Maharsha), to give reward to their parents.

(c) Rebbi Yehoshua was highly impressed with Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah's Derashah - he asked Rebbi Yochanan ben Berokah and Rebbi Elazar Chisma why they wanted to hide from him such a precious jewel.

(d) He (Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah) also Darshened the Pesukim "es Hashem He'emarta ha'Yom ... ve'Hu He'emircha ha'Yom" - to mean "Hashem praised you ... and you praised Him" (see also Rashi in Chumash). Likewise, Yisrael said (in praise of Hashem) "Shema Yisrael ... , and Hashem said (in praise of Yisrael) "u'Mi ke'Amcha Yisrael Goy Echad ba'Aretz"?




(a) Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah (see also Rabeinu Chananel and Hagahos ha'Rav Renshberg) also Darshened from the Pasuk in Koheles "Divrei Chachamim ke'Dorbonos ... " - that the words of the Chachamim, like the goad of the plowshare (which guides the cow along the furrow to give life to the world), guides its students from the path that leads to death to the path that leads to life.

(b) The Pasuk then needs to add ...

1. ... "u'ke'Mismaros" - to teach us that Divrei Torah are not movable like a plowshare (but are fixed - firm - like nails in the wall).
2. ... "Netu'im" - that they do not make a hole in the wall (damage those who learn them like a nail), but on the contrary, they cause growth, like a tree). Alternatively, they do not deteriorate like a nail in the wall, but prosper and flourish like a tree.
(a) "Ba'alei Asupos" refers to the groups of Talmidei-Chachamim learning together, some of whom rule, Tamei, others Tahor; some who say Asur, others, Mutar; some who rule Pasul, others Kasher. This creates a problem however - because it implies that there are different Toros; one says this, and one says that, as if they all came from different sources?

(b) The final phrase "Kulan Nitnu me'Ro'eh Echad" alleviates the problem - because we now see that all the diverse opinions come from the same G-d, who allowed for a difference of opinion in Halachah. Consequently, both opinions can be right (provided they conform with the rules and regulations of Torah she'be'Al Peh).

(c) We learn from "va'Yedaber Elokim es Kol ha'Devarim ha'Eileh" - that all the diverse opinions stem from the One G-d.

(d) One is not permitted to accept one opinion and ignore the other - but is obligated to study carefully both opinion before deciding which one to follow.

7) Rebbi Yehoshua finally exclaimed in praise of Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah - 'The generation in which Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah lives is truly not an orphaned one'!


(a) Rebbi Yochanan ben Berokah and Rebbi Elazar Chisma were initially reluctant to tell Rebbi Yehoshua what Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah had taught the previous day because of a similar incident that had occurred - with Rebbi Elazar and Rebbi Yossi ben Durmaskis.

(b) Rebbi Yossi ben Durmaskis told Rebbi Elazar 'Nimnu ve'Gamru: Amon u'Mo'av Me'asrin Ma'aser Ani bi'Shevi'is'. The basis for this Halachah is the fact that the Kedushah with which Yehoshua sanctified Eretz Yisrael was only temporary (once they went into Galus, it dissipated). So when the Olei Bavel returned to build the second Beis Hamikdash, they did not re-sanctify certain parts of the surrounding countries regarding Shemitah, to enable the poor to receive Leket, Shikchah Pei'ah and Ma'aser Ani (arbitrarily introduced - because min ha'Torah, the Sh'mitah-year is not subject to Ma'asros) .

(c) He was upset with Rebbi Yossi ben Durmaskis for praising the Darshen who taught the Halachah in his own name, and then allowing a vote to take place, instead of pointing out that Raban Yochanan ben Zakai had already passed on the tradition that it was a Halachah le'Moshe mi'Sinai? (See Agados Maharsha, who offers another explanation as to why Rebbi Elazar was angry).

(d) He decreed that Rebbi Yossi becomes blind. He did not remain blind however - because, no sooner did Rebbi Elazar's anger abate than he prayed for to be restored.

(a) The Beraisa defines a Shoteh in three ways, two of them: as one who takes solitary walks in the middle of the night and one who sleeps overnight in a cemetery. The third definition is - one who tears his clothes.

(b) According to Rav Huna, he is only classified as a Shoteh if he performs all three of them - Rebbi Yochanan certifies him for any one of them.

(c) Both agree that he is only a Shoteh if he does these things in an abnormal manner - but not if he acts normally.

(a) According to Rebbi Yochanan, even if a Shoteh does act abnormally, the Tana does not classify him as a Shoteh for just ...
1. ... sleeping overnight in a cemetery - because he may be a sane man who wants to have contact with demons for purposes of witchcraft.
2. ... taking solitary walks at night - because perhaps he is sick (with insomnia) or he feels too hot and goes out to cool down.
3. ... tearing his clothes - because perhaps he is simply highly emotional.
(b) Nevertheless, once he performs all three - we ignore all the possible motives and apply one that fits all three (that he is insane), just like an ox that gores three different species of animals, where we combine the three and say that it is a goring ox (for all species - and do not attribute its actions to a preference of those particular animals, as we would have said had it not gored *three* different species).
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