POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
prepared by Rabbi Yisrael Shaw
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous daf Chagigah 24
CHAGIGAH 23, 24, 25 - have been sponsored by a grant from a benevolent
foundation based in Yerushalayim, that is dedicated to spreading awareness
of Torah and Judaism.
1) THE EIGHTH STRINGENCY OF KODESH OVER TERUMAH: KODESH HAS "REVI'I",
WHILE TERUMAH HAS ONLY "SHLISHI"
3. Answer: When the Beraisa implies that it is d'Rabanan, it
is referring to utensils which do not have any concavity
(i.e. they are flat).
(c) R. Chanin argues with R. Chiya b. Aba.
4. Mid'Oraisa, only a utensil with concavity join its
contents together (to become Tamei), while a flat utensil
5. The Rabanan enacted that a flat utensil also joins its
1. R. Chiya b. Aba says that our Mishnah is expressing R.
2. Thus, according to R. Chiya, this stringency is only
(a) (Beraisa) The source that Kodesh has Revi'i is a Kal v'Chomer.
2) THE NINTH STRINGENCY OF KODESH OVER TERUMAH: ONE HAND IS METAMEI THE
OTHER FOR KODESH BUT NOT FOR TERUMAH
1. A person who is Mechusar Kipurim is permitted to eat
Terumah, yet is Pasul for Kodesh.
2. If so, since a Tum'ah level of Shlishi is Pasul for
Terumah, then certainly it will make a Revi'i for Kodesh.
3. If a Kal v'Chomer is used to make Revi'i for Kodesh, how
do we know from the Torah that there is Shlishi for Kodesh?
4. We know Shlishi for Kodesh from the verse, "Any flesh [of
Shelamim, which is Kodesh] touched by anything Tamei may
not be eaten" (Vayikra 7:19).
(i) "Anything Tamei" refers even to a Sheni l'Tum'ah.
(ii) And the verse says that flesh of Kodesh that touches
it becomes a Shlishi ("may not be eaten").
(a) (R. Shizbi) This enactment applies only when the Tahor hand is
touching the Kodesh food at the time that the Tamei hand
touches the Tahor hand.
3) CAN ONE PERSON'S HAND BE METAMEI ANOTHER PERSON'S HAND FOR KODESH?
(b) The Tamei hand does not make the Tahor hand Tamei when the
Tahor hand is not touching the food.
(c) Question (Abaye): A Beraisa contradicts this!
1. (Rebbi) A *dry* hand (with the status of Sheni l'Tum'ah)
which touches the other hand makes that hand into a Sheni
(with the ability to be Metamei any Kodesh that it touches
and make it a Shlishi).
2. (R. Yosi b. R. Yehudah) The second hand only becomes a
Shlishi (with the ability only to be Posel any Kodesh that
it touches and make it a Revi'i).
3. If the second hand is not touching Kodesh, then that is why
the Beraisa says that the first hand is *dry*.
(i) It is teaching the Chidush that even though a Sheni
normally cannot make another Sheni while dry, the
Rabanan were strict with regard to Kodesh.
4. But if the second hand *is* touching Kodesh, then why does
the Beraisa have to say that the first hand is dry?
(i) The fear is that the first hand will touch the
Kodesh food (that the second hand is holding).
(ii) There is no Chidush in saying that the first hand is
dry, because a Sheni can certainly make Kodesh which
it touches into a Shlishi without being wet!
(a) (Reish Lakish) This stringecy of Kodesh applies only when one
person touches his own hand, but not when he touches his
(b) (R. Yochanan) Even if he touches his friend's hand, he will
make it Tamei for Kodesh.
4) THE TENTH STRINGENCY OF KODESH OVER TERUMAH: ONE MAY EAT TERUMAH
FOODS THAT ARE DRY, WITH HANDS THAT ARE TAMEI, BUT NOT KODESH FOODS
1. This is only if his first hand touches his friend's hand, but
not if his second hand (that was made Tamei by his first)
touches his friend's hand.
(c) R. Yochanan derives this from the repetition in the Mishnah.
2. His hand will only make his friend's hand into a Shlishi
(with the ability only to be Posel the Kodesh that it
touches and make it a Revi'i).
(i) This is the subject of a Machlokes Tana'im (Rebbi and
R. Yosi b. R. Yehudah in a Beraisa cited earlier).
1. The Mishnah first says, "For Terumah, if one hand became
Tamei, the other remains Tahor, while for Kodesh, one must
immerse both hands."
(d) Reish Lakish changed his mind and agreed with R. Yochanan.
2. The Mishnah then repeats itself and says again, "Because
one hand is Metamei the other for Kodesh but not for
3. It must be that the second statement is teaching that one's
hand can be Metamei his friend's hand.
(a) Question: What is the Mishnah teaching -- it is obvious that
one may not eat Kodesh foods that are dry with hands that are
5) THE ELEVENTH STRINGENCY OF KODESH OVER TERUMAH: AN ONEN AND ONE WHO
IS MECHUSAR KIPURIM REQUIRE TEVILAH IN ORDER TO EAT KODESH
1. Kodesh foods are Mekabel Tum'ah even when dry, because of
(b) Answer: It is referring to a case where one's friend (whose
hands are Tahor) places the food in his mouth (or he places it
in his own mouth by using a flat reed or flat spoon, which are
not Mekabel Tum'ah).
1. Now, he wants to eat with it a radish or onion of Chulin.
2. Even though his Tamei hands will not make the Chulin food
Tamei (since they are dry), the Rabanan prohibited placing
that Chulin food in his mouth when he is already eating
Kodesh (lest he touch the saliva in his mouth, making his
Tamei hands wet, and then touch the Chulin, making it
Tamei, which in turn would make the Kodesh Tamei).
(a) Question: What is the reason?
6) MISHNAH: WAYS IN WHICH TERUMAH IS MORE STRINGENT THAN KODESH
(b) Answer: Since until now they were prohibited from eating
Kodesh (but permitted to eat Terumah), the Rabanan required
that they immerse in order to eat Kodesh.
(a) In Yehudah, an Am ha'Aretz is trusted the entire year with
regard to the Taharah of wine and oil of Kodesh (which he
designated at the time of their production to be used upon the
1. For wine and oil of Terumah, though, he is only trusted
during their production seasons (the wine-press and olive-
(b) An Am ha'Aretz is trusted for jugs of wine and jugs of oil
that are Demai (have Terumah and Chulin mixed together) during
the production seasons, and seventy days before them.
2. If those seasons passed and the Am ha'Aretz brings a barrel
of Terumah wine to the Kohen, the Kohen may not accept it.
3. Rather, he (the Am ha'Aretz) leaves it until the next wine-
pressing season and then gives it to the Kohen.
4. If, however, the Am ha'Aretz says that he designated in the
barrel some wine for Kodesh, he is trusted (and the Kohen
may accept it from him at any time).