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Chagigah, 17


QUESTION: The Mishnah states that when Shavuos falls on Erev Shabbos, according to Beis Shamai the Yom Tavo'ach, the day of bringing the Korban, is not on Erev Shabbos nor on Shabbos, but after Shabbos (on Sunday). Beis Hillel says that it is not necessary to have a Yom Tavo'ach, because all of the Korbanos for Shavuos are brought on Yom Tov (Erev Shabbos). The Mishnah then states that everyone agrees that when Shavuos falls on Shabbos, the Yom Tavo'ach is on Sunday (since the Korbanos of the Yom Tov cannot be brought on Shabbos).

Why does Beis Shamai hold that when Shavuos is on Erev Shabbos, the Yom Tavo'ach is on Sunday? It seems that he is consistent with his opinion in the beginning of the Mishnah, where he says that it is prohibited to bring Korbanos Olos on Yom Tov, even the Olos of the festival. Beis Hillel argues and says that it is permitted to bring on Olos on Yom Tov.

RASHI (DH Yom Tavo'ach), however, describes Beis Shamai's Yom Tavo'ach as "the day of offering the Korbanos Re'iyah and *Chagigah* of Yom Tov." (This is also the way Rabeinu Avraham min ha'Har explains the words Yom Tavo'ach.) Why should Beis Shamai require a Yom Tavo'ach for the Korban Chagigah? He explicitly permits bringing Shelamim on Yom Tov!

Does Rashi maintain that the Shelamim which Beis Shamai permits one to bring on Yom Tov are the Shalmei Simchah, but Beis Shamai prohibits bringing the Shalmei Chagigah on Yom Tov? The opposite is more logical: the Shalmei Chagigah is more of an obligation than the Shalmei Simchah, since the Chagigah must be brought from Chulin, while the Shalmei Simchah may be brought from other Chovos (Nedarim, Nedavos, Ma'aser, etc.; 7b) or from a Korban brought the day before Yom Tov (Pesachim 71a)! The only Chiyuv of Shalmei Simchah is to *eat the meat* of a Korban, and not to bring a Korban specifically for that purpose (see Insights to Daf 8:1) -- why should it be permitted to offer it on Yom Tov?

Moreover, the Gemara in Beitzah (19a) says explicitly that Beis Shamai permits bringing Shalmei Chagigah on Yom Tov, which it derives from the verse, "*v'Chagosem* Chag la'Hashem" (Vayikra 23:41). How, then, can Rashi say that Beis Shamai prohibits bringing the Korban Chagigah on Yom Tov? The Gemara in Megilah (5a) also says explicitly that according to Beis Shamai it is permitted to bring the Chagigah on Yom Tov. What does Rashi mean when he says that Beis Shamai holds that one may not bring the Chagigah on Yom Tov? (TOSFOS, DH Yom Tavo'ach)


(a) The SI'ACH YITZCHAK suggests that it is only when Yom Tov falls on Friday that Beis Shamai holds that the Chagigah is pushed off until Sunday, because he wants the Olah and Chagigah to be brought either on the same day or on consecutive days. On a normal Yom Tov, according to Beis Shamai, the Chagigah is brought on Yom Tov and the Olah is brought the next day (on Chol ha'Mo'ed, or on the day after Shavuos). If Yom Tov is Erev Shabbos and the Olah would not be brought until Sunday (creating a large gap of time between the two), then the Chagigah is also pushed off until Sunday.

Similarly, the CHAFETZ CHAIM (in ZEVACH TODAH) answers that Beis Shamai maintains that it is permitted mid'Oraisa to bring a Korban Chagigah on Yom Tov. That is the intention of the beginning of our Mishnah and the Gemara in Beitzah and Megilah, which say that Beis Shamai permits bringing Shalmei Chagigah on Yom Tov. When the Mishnah says, according to Beis Shamai, that there is a Yom Tavo'ach after Shabbos, it means that the *Rabanan decreed* that one should not bring the Chagigah on a different day than the Olas Re'iyah, in order to ensure that the Chagigah is not brought on Yom Tov even when Shavuos falls on Shabbos (when it is prohibited mid'Oraisa to bring the Chagigah). (See also MEROMEI SADEH of the NETZIV for another approach.)

The problem with these approaches is that they do not address the source from which Rashi learned such Chidushim. Why should Rashi explain Beis Shamai's opinion in such a novel way?

Rav Yitzchak Isaac Chaver and the other Acharonim say that perhaps Rashi's inference was from the phrase, "Yom Tavo'ach" -- "the Day of Offering [the Korbanos]," which implies that *all* of the Korbanos of Yom Tov were brought on that day, including the Chagigah. However, the Si'ach Yitzchak challenges this. The Gemara (17b) asks that Beis Shamai already said in the beginning of the Mishnah that one may not bring a Korban on Yom Tov, so why does he repeat himself in the case of Shavuos that falls on Friday? If Rashi is correct, that even the Chagigah is brought after Shabbos on the Yom Tavo'ach, then what is the Gemara's question? Beis Shamai repeats his opinion in the case of Shavuos that falls on Friday in order to teach a very important Chidush -- that in certain cases, even the Chagigah cannot be brought on Yom Tov!

(b) TOSFOS answers that Rashi's source might be the Yerushalmi here and the Tosefta (2:5) which record the reasons for the Machlokes between Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel. Beis Hillel explains his reason for saying that all of the Korbanos of the festival may be brought on Yom Tov, because they are Korbanos which have a "Zman Kavu'a," a set time, and their time will pass if we do not permit the Korbanos to be brought at the first available opportunity. Nedarim and Nedavos, though, may not be brought on Yom Tov, because they have no set time at which they must be brought. Beis Shamai responds that the *Korban Chagigah* is also not considered to have a set time, because it may be brought on any of the days of Chol ha'Mo'ed. Beis Hillel responds that the Chagigah also has a set time; it must be brought *during the festival*, and not afterwards, whereas Nedarim can be brought anytime of year.

From the Yerushalmi and Tosefta, it seems that Beis Shamai prohibits bringing the *Chagigah* on Yom Tov, as Rashi here says. (It should be noted that the Gemara in Beitzah 20b quotes this Tosefta, but says the world "Olas Re'iyah" in place of "Chagigah." According to that rendition of the Tosefta, there is no support for Rashi from the Tosefta.)

The problem with this answer is that the beginning of the Mishnah (and Tosefta) says that Beis Shamai *permits* bringing Shelamim on Yom Tov, and it must be talking about Shalmei Chagigah (as we pointed out based on logic and based on the Gemaras cited above)!

RAV YITZCHAK ISAAC CHAVER (in Hagahos) suggests that only on Shavuos does Beis Shamai prohibit bringing Shalmei Chagigah on Yom Tov. This is because on the other festivals, Pesach and Sukos, which have a second Yom Tov at the end of the festival, Beis Shamai must permit bringing the Chagigah on Yom Tov because it cannot be pushed off and brought on a later day (because the festival ends that day). Since, on the second Yom Tov on Pesach and Sukos Beis Shamai permits bringing the Chagigah because it is then a Korban with a set time and cannot be delayed, they also permit bringing the Chagigah on the first Yom Tov. On Shavuos, though, when there is no second day of Yom Tov, since there is no day of Yom Tov which the Chagigah overrides, it does not override the Yom Tov of Shavuos at all.

(c) Perhaps we may suggest an entirely new explanation for the words of Rashi. Rashi certainly agrees that Beis Shamai permits bringing the Korban Chagigah on Yom Tov. What, then, does Rashi mean when he says that the Yom Tavo'ach is for the Korban Chagigah as well?

The answer is that these words of Rashi (DH Yom Tavo'ach) are out of place. They belong after the following comment of Rashi (DH Ein Lah Yom Tavo'ach). These words of Rashi are not discussing the case of Shavuos that falls on Friday, but rather they are discussing the following case in the Mishnah, when Shavuos falls on *Shabbos*. In such a case, both Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel agree that the Yom Tavo'ach is on Sunday. In that case, the Yom Tavo'ach is indeed for all of the Korbanos, including the Chagigah, since those Korbanos could not be brought on Shabbos! (CHAGEI DAVID -- see HAGAHOS HA'BACH on 18a, who points out that there are a number of comments of Rashi there that are out of place.)

Regarding the Yerushalmi and the Tosefta, many Acharonim point out that it is clear from the words later in the Yerushalmi and from the Tosefta itself that Beis Shamai *permits* bringing Shalmei Chagigah on Yom Tov. When the Yerushalmi and Tosefta mention the word "Chagigah" in the argument between Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel, it is Lav Davka and it means the Olas Re'iyah (it calls the Re'iyah "Chagigah" because the Re'iyah is also a Korban that is brought on the festival, the "Chag"). Accordingly, when the Gemara in Beitzah quotes this Tosefta, it replaces the word "Chagigah" with the more accurate "Olas Re'iyah." (HAGAHOS RAV ISAAC CHAVER)

However, this explanation -- that the comments of Rashi are out of place -- seems to be refuted by the last words of Rashi's comment here. Rashi continues and says that the Yom Tavo'ach of the Re'iyah and Chagigah is after Shabbos because those Korbanos "cannot be brought on Yom Tov or Shabbos." If Rashi is discussing the case of Shavuos that falls on Shabbos, then why does he say that these Korbanos "cannot be brought *on Yom Tov*?" That is irrelevant to this case, and also incorrect! It must be that he is discussing a normal Yom Tov of Shavuos that does not fall on Shabbos, and yet he still says that neither the Re'iyah *nor the Chagigah* are brought on Yom Tov!

(It is interesting to note that Rav Avraham min ha'Har omits these words of Rashi, as well as the entire comment of Rashi that follows. Accordingly, there is no problem with our approach, and none of his comments are out of order.)

The answer is that the words of Rashi here are missing a period. Rashi's comment (in DH Yom Tavo'ach) actually ends with the words, "... Shel Yom Tov." The following words, "l'Achar ha'Shabbos..." begin a new comment of Rashi, and belong before Rashi's comments in DH Yom Tavo'ach. His words "l'Achar ha'Shabbos..." are referring back to the case of Shavuos that falls on Friday (in our texts, the Mishnah there reads "Achar ha'Shabbos," but Rashi's Girsa was "l'Achar ha'Shabbos," like the Girsa of the manuscripts quoted by the DIKDUKEI SOFRIM).

Thus, even according to Rashi, everyone agrees that the Shalmei Chagigah may be brought on Yom Tov.


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