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Chagigah 25

CHAGIGAH 23, 24, 25 - have been sponsored by a grant from a benevolent foundation based in Yerushalayim, that is dedicated to spreading awareness of Torah and Judaism.

1) [line 1] HA'MEDUMA'OS - that have in them a mixture; the Gemara originally assumes that this means that the wine and oil are Tevel, from which Terumah will be separated, leaving Chulin; the Gemara concludes that the wine and oil are being guarded Al Taharas ha'Kodesh, from which Kodesh and Terumah will be separated, leaving Chulin (see Insights to Chagigah 25b)

2) [line 9] KUSIM
(a) The King of Ashur brought the people of Kusa to Eretz Yisrael and made them settle in the Shomron. They converted to Judaism after they found themselves under attack from lions. The Chachamim disagree as to whether their conversion was honest and valid or not. After the times of the Mishnah, they were found worshipping an image of a dove and the Chachamim gave them the status of idolaters. The land of the Kusim is approximately the area surrounding the modern-day Shechem.
(b) The term Kusim may refer to foreign nations in general who settled in Eretz Yisrael.

3a) [line 5] SHIDAH - (a) a woman's carriage that is closed on all sides (RASHI to Eruvin 30b); (b) a large chest that is used as a bench in a woman's carriage (RASHI to Eruvin 14b)
b) [line 5] TEIVAH - a chest
c) [line 5] MIGDAL - (O.F. mestier) a cupboard (RASHI to Eruvin 30b)

(a) Certain parts of a Mes are Metamei b'Ohel. (See Background to Shabbos 27:19, 132:2,3)
(b) When an object that can be Metamei b'Ohel is located in an Ohel (i.e. a covered space that is at least one Tefach in length, width and height), the Ohel makes everything in it Tamei and protects anything that is above it from becoming Tamei. That is, an Ohel is *Mevi* Tum'ah (spreads Tum'ah inside of it) and is *Chotzetz* from Tum'ah (intervenes between the Tum'ah and the space above the Ohel, preventing Tum'ah from spreading above it).
(c) However, not all objects which cover Tum'ah are Mevi and Chotzetz. There are objects which are Mevi and not Chotzetz and other objects which are Chotzetz and not Mevi and even others that are neither Mevi nor Chotzetz (Ohalos 8:5). An object that is flying through the air, such as a bird or a Talis that is carried or caught up by the wind, are not Ohalim and are not Mevi or Chotzetz, even if they are one Tefach wide.
(d) The Tana'im argue with regard to a container that is being carried from place to place ("Ohel Zaruk", a thrown or moving Ohel). Rebbi rules that it is not termed an Ohel ad is similar to a flying Talis that is not Chotzetz, while Rebbi Yosi b'Rebbi Yehudah rules that it has the laws of a normal Ohel, and is Mevi Tum'ah and Chotzetz (RI cited by Tosfos DH Ohel Zaruk).

5) [line 9] TZEMID PESIL
If a k'Zayis from a corpse is in an Ohel (a space that is at least a Tefach by a Tefach square and a Tefach high), Tum'ah spreads out in all directions to fill the entire Ohel. Any metal utensils (covered or uncovered) or food and drink that are in the Ohel become Teme'im. However, a Keli Cheres only becomes Tamei when Tum'ah enters it. Therefore, when it is covered with a Tzemid Pesil (a tight seal) it does not become Tamei even if it is in the Ohel. Similarly, a food that is in a Keli Cheres that is covered with a Tzemid Pesil, does not become Tamei with Tum'as Eretz ha'Amim.

6) [line 10] SHONIN - the Tana'im learn a Beraisa

7) [line 12] MAYIM SHE'EINAN MEKUDASHIM - water that has not yet been mixed with the ashes of the Parah Adumah

8) [line 14] CHEVRAYA MEDAKAN BI'GLILA - Chaverim (as opposed to Amei ha'Aretz) in Galil guard their wine and oil, keeping them on the level of purity that is kept in the Beis ha'Mikdash

9) [line 16] HA'GOMER ZEISAV - a person who finishes harvesting his olives [and wants to press them to make oil] (TIFERES YISRAEL Taharos 9:4)

10a) [line 18] CHORFEI - early crop
b) [line 19] AFLEI - late crop
11) [line 25] MECHAVARTA KED'SHANYAN ME'IKARA - it is clearly correct as we originally answered [that it is dependent on whether or not it is the late crop]


12) [line 14] MENAPE'ACH ADAM - a person blows

13) [line 15] BEIS HA'PERAS
(a) Beis ha'Peras is a general term referring to a field or an area that the Rabanan decreed to be treated as though it were Tamei, in certain respects. The Mishnayos in Ohalos (18:1-4) explain that there are three specific types of Beis ha'Peras:

1. A field in which a grave was plowed over, scattering the bones in all directions. Such a field may be planted with trees, but not with vegetables or grains. Its earth can make a person Tamei through Maga or Masa
2. A field (that is a Reshus ha'Rabim; TOSFOS Kesuvos 24b; RASH Ohalos 18:3) in which a grave is known to exist but it became lost and cannot be located. In such a field, trees may not be planted but vegetables or grains may be planted. It can make a person Tamei through Ohel (and according to some Girsa'os, through Maga and Masa as well).
3. A field on the edge of a town where a corpse was brought [and mourned] before burial. Such a field may neither be planted nor sown with vegetables or grains (but its earth is not Tamei if removed from its place). There are a number of reasons why the Rabanan might have made such a field Tamei:
i. Part of a corpse may have become dislodged and fallen there (RASHI to Moed Katan 5b DH Mishum Ye'ush) [or that an entire corpse may have inadvertently been left behind there - ME'IRI ibid.]. ii. Alternatively, since a corpse is commonly found there, the Rabanan instituted that the area not be sown or planted, so as not to attract people to the area who will become Teme'im and spread Tum'ah. (PERUSH HA'MISHNAH of the Rambam to Ohalos 18:4)
iii. The prohibition against planting or sowing such a field has nothing to do with Tum'ah whatsoever. Rather, it involves a question of ownership. Since the community has made it their practice to mourn for and eulogize the dead in this field and the original owner did not protest this practice, he loses all rights to the land. The former owner cannot later decide to plant the field and deny the community the right to use it as a place for public mourning. (RITVA, RASH Ohalos 18:4 and many Rishonim -- see Vilna Gaon Choshen Mishpat 377:2)
(b) The Bartenura offers three explanations as to why the word "Peras" was used to describe these fields: 1. Tum'ah *spreads* (Pores) out in all directions from the field; 2. Bones that are *broken* (Perusim) are strewn in the field. (These first two explanations only apply to the first of the three types of Beis ha'Peras mentioned above, 1); 3. People's *feet* (Parsos) stay away from the area because of its Tum'ah.
(c) In the first type of Beis ha'Peras (a field with a burial plot that has been plowed), the Rabanan decreed that the field is Metamei in every direction from the grave for the length of the furrow of a plow, which is 50 Amos. This results in an area 100 Amos by 100 Amos around the grave (RASH Ohalos 17:1). The Rabanan instituted a way to remove the Tum'ah from the area that was plowed (in certain cases) by blowing the dirt of each section of the field to check for small pieces of bone.

14) [line 16] SHE'NIDASH - that was trampled
15) [line 28] KANKANIM - jugs, utensils in which wine is stored
16) [line 32] REIKANIM D'KODESH - empty jugs that are always used for Kodesh
17a) [line 40] ARISA - a hired field laborer who receives a percentage (1/2, 1/3 or 1/4) of the produce of the field
b) [line 40] ILAVEI ARISA L'MITRACH A'GULFEI - it is incumbent upon the hired field laborer of the produce of the field) to attend to the task of procuring barrels

18) [line 40] MA'ATZARTA - the time of pressing grapes or olives
19) [line 41] HA'MODI'IM - the city of Modi'im (the hometown of the Maccabees), located in the hills to the northeast of Lod

20) [line 42] KADAR - a potter
21) [line 42] HU HA'KADAR, V'HEN HA'KEDEROS, V'HEN HA'LOKCHIN, NE'EMAN - only the potter (who is an Am ha'Aretz) who brought the earthenware vessels from beyond Modi'im is believed, and only about those vessels that he brought with him, and only by the people who saw him bring them

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