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Previous daf Chagigah 7
1) [line 1] PE'AH
The corner, or end, of the harvest must be left in the field for the poor, as
it states "Lo Sechaleh Pe'as Sadecha Liktzor...le'Ani vela'Ger Ta'azov Osam."
- "Do not completely harvest the corner of your field...you shall leave them
(the gifts of Pe'ah, Leket, Olelos and Peret) for the poor and the stranger."
2) [line 1] BIKURIM
(a) The Mitzvah of Bikurim consists of bringing the first fruits to emerge
in one's field every year to the Beis ha'Mikdash. A Kohen takes the basket of
fruit and places it at the base of the southwestern corner of the Mizbe'ach
(RAMBAM Hilchos Bikurim 3:12). The owner recites a specified declaration
(Devarim 26:3,5-10), and the fruits are then given to the Kohen (Mishnah
Bikurim 3:8, RAMBAM ibid. 3:1).
(b) The Mitzvah of Bikurim applies only to the seven species with which the
land of Eretz Yisrael was blessed (Devarim 8:8) -- wheat, barley, grapes,
figs, pomegranates, olives and dates (Bikurim 1:3, RAMBAM ibid. 2:2).
(Although many other types of produce now grow in Eretz Yisrael, these are
the *only* species of produce truly indigenous to Israel. Other, "immigrant,"
species can be destroyed by drought or harsh weather, but these 7 species
will always be part of the land -- heard once from a leading botanist -MK.)
(c) In certain instances, the owner only brings the fruit, without reciting
the declaration (Mevi v'Eino Korei). For example, if he brings them between
Sukos and Chanukah, he does not recite the verses (see Gemara Pesachim 36b
and Rashi there).
3) [line 1] RE'AYON (RE'IYAH)
Every Jewish male is required to appear before HaSh-m in the Azarah of the
Beis ha'Mikdash and to bring a Korban Re'iyah on the three festivals (Devarim
16:16). The Korban Re'iyah is a Korban Olah. If the Korban was not brought on
the first day of the festival, it may be brought on any of the other six days
of Pesach. On Sukos it may be brought on the first day or the next seven days
and on Shavu'os it may be brought on Shavu'os or on the six days following
*4*) [line 7] MAI HA'RE'AYON - The Beraisa says that the Mitzvah of "Re'ayon"
has no limit, instead of simply referring to the Mitzvah of "Re'iyah." From
this we may infer that when the Beraisa says that there is no limit to
"Re'ayon," it is not *just* telling us that one may buy as expensive a Korban
Re'iyah as one wants. It is telling us *in addition* that there is no limit
to the amount of times one may fulfill the Mitzvah of "Re'iyas Panim" during
a Regel. One may observe the Mitzvah just once, or one may enter the Azarah
many times during the Regel and fulfill the Mitzvah many times. Rebbi
Yochanan and Reish Lakish argue over how the Mitzvah of Re'iyah is fulfilled,
if it is performed more than once during a Regel. (RASHI, as explained by the
5) [line 26] MAH CHAGIGAH HA'AMURAH L'HEDYOT BA'RA'UY LO - [we compare them
as follows: since] the Korban Chagigah that is stated [as a requirement] for
people is brought from something that is fitting for people [to eat]
6) [line 32] V'EIN NIR'IN CHATZA'IN - the Gemara (7b) concludes that this
refers to the exemption of copper miners, tanners, etc. from the Mitzvah of
Re'iyah, since their offensive smells make them unable to travel with others
to the Beis ha'Mikdash
7) [line 40] "HOKAR RAGLECHA..." - "Let your foot be scarce in your
neighbor's house; lest he become weary of you, and hate you." (Mishlei 25:17)
- The Gemara interprets the "neighbor" in this verse as referring to HaSh-m,
advising Benei Yisrael not to appear too often in the Beis ha'Mikdash.
8) [line 4] HA'MEKAMETZ - (a) (lit. one who scrapes together, collects) one
who collects the excrement of dogs in order to process hides (O.F. cordovan -
a soft fine-grained leather [originally] made in Cordova, Spain) (RASHI to
Chagigah 4a); (b) one who collects the excrement of dogs in order to wash
clothes (RASHI to Kesuvos 77a and to Bava Basra 17a, 19a) (c) a small-scale
tanner (Gemara Kesuvos 77a)
9) [line 4] HA'METZAREF NECHOSHES - (a) one who smelts copper at the copper
mine (RASHI to Chagigah 4a); (b) copper kettle smiths; (c) a copper miner
(The last two opinions are quoted in the Gemara Kesuvos 77a)
10) [line 4] HA'BURSI - a tanner who uses excrement to tan hides
11) [line 8] MA'ASER (MA'ASER SHENI)
(a) After a crop is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he
must separate Terumah from the crop and give it to a Kohen. Although the
Torah does not specify the amount to be given, the Rabanan set the
requirement at one fiftieth of the total crop.
(b) After Terumah is removed from the produce, the first tithe to be given
every year is called Ma'aser Rishon; one tenth of the produce must be given
to a Levi.
(c) A second tithe is given every year after Ma'aser Rishon has been
separated. The tithe that is separated in the third and sixth years of the 7-
year Shemitah cycle is called Ma'aser Ani and is given to the poor.
(d) The tithe that is separated during the first, second, fourth and fifth
years is called *Ma'aser Sheni*. The Torah requires that Ma'aser Sheni be
brought and eaten by its owner in Yerushalayim.
(e) Alternatively, Ma'aser Sheni produce may be redeemed, in which case the
money used to redeem it is brought to Yerushalayim. If the owner himself
redeems the produce, he must add an additional *fifth* (of the ensuing total,
or a *quarter* of the original value). The food that is bought with this
money in Yerushalayim becomes Kodesh like Ma'aser Sheni and must be eaten
b'Taharah. Ma'aser Sheni that was redeemed by anyone besides the owner is
exempt from the additional fifth.
12) [line 12] MA'ASER BEHEMAH
(a) Every year, a person must collect all of the kosher animals that were
born during that year into a corral. As they leave the corral through a
narrow opening, one by one, the owner counts them and marks every tenth one
as Ma'aser Behemah. The Mitzvah of Ma'aser Behemah is stated in Vayikra
(27:32), "v'Chol Ma'asar Bakar va'Tzon, Kol Asher Ya'avor Tachas ha'Shevet,
ha'Asiri Yiheyeh Kodesh la'Sh-m." ("And all of the herds and flocks shall be
tithed as they are counted under the rod, every tenth one being consecrated
(b) Ma'aser Behemah is eaten by its owner. If it has no Mum (blemish or
defect), it is offered as a Korban on the Mizbe'ach and eaten by its owner in
Yerushalayim. If it has a Mum, the owner may slaughter and eat it anywhere.
13) [line 13] BECHOR
(a) The Kedushah of Bechor rests on every first-born male of an ox, goat or
sheep when it comes out of its mother's womb. Nevertheless, there is a
Mitzvah for a person to sanctify it himself (Erchin 29, based on Devarim
15:19). He must then give it to a Kohen; it may not be redeemed.
(b) If the animal has no Mum (blemish), the Kohen must bring it as a Korban
during its first year. After its blood and Emurim (see Background to Pesachim
43:15a and 95:9) are offered on the Mizbe'ach, its meat is eaten in
Yerushalayim during the following two days and the intervening night by
Kohanim, their wives, children and slaves.
(c) If the animal has a Mum, it must be slaughtered and eaten during its
first year. If it developed a Mum after the first year, it must be
slaughtered and eaten within thirty days. The Kohen can give it away or sell
it, even to a non-Kohen. However, it may not be sold in a meat market or
weighed in the usual manner.
(d) Whether or not it has a Mum, it is forbidden to work with a Bechor or to
shear it. Any fleece that is removed from a Bechor, even if it came off on
its own, is Asur b'Hana'ah. If, upon Shechitah, the animal is found to be a
Tereifah, it is Asur b'Hana'ah and must be buried.
(e) Now that there is no Beis ha'Mikdash, a Kohen must care for a Bechor
until it develops a Mum. Alternatively, he can sell it, even if it has no
Mum, to a non-Kohen, who may eat it after it develops a Mum. It may not be
bought, however, in order to be sold for a profit (Sefer ha'Chinuch #393,
14) [line 13] CHAZEH V'SHOK
The chest and the hind leg of the Shelamim (peace offering) were waved in a
prescribed manner and were then given as a gift to the Kohanim, as described
in Vayikra (7:28-36)
15) [line 16] KOL DAVAR SHEB'CHOVAH EINO BA ELA MIN HA'CHULIN
(a) Every Korban that a person is required to bring must be set aside from
animals that are Chulin (non-consecrated). This applies whether the
obligation to bring the Korban stems from the Torah, such as Pesach, Chatas,
Asham, etc., or whether it stems from the person himself, such as if he vowed
to bring a Korban Olah, Shelamim or Todah. He does not fulfill his obligation
unless he sets aside and offers as the Korban an animal that is Chulin. If he
owns an animal that he already set aside as a Korban by declaring it a
Nedavah (e.g. by saying, "This animal shall be a Shelamim"), or if it is
Kadosh because it is Ma'aser Behemah, he can not fulfill his obligation with
this animal (Menachos 81b).
(b) If a person vows to bring a Korban and specifies *at the time of his vow*
that he may bring an animal that is Ma'aser Behemah as his Korban, he *does*
fulfill his obligation with this animal (ibid.).
16) [line 20] SHELAMIM (SHALMEI YACHID)
(a) A person may offer a Korban in the Beis ha'Mikdash as a voluntary
sacrifice, as it states in Vayikra 1:2. Voluntary Korbanos may be Olos (which
are burned entirely on the Mizbe'ach, see Vayikra 1:2-17, 6:1-6), Shelamim
(parts of which are eaten, see Vayikra 3:1-17, 7:11-21, 7:28-37) or Menachos
(flour offerings, see Vayikra 2:1-13, 6:7-11, 7:9-10).
(b) Korbenos Shelamim that are offered by an individual may be brought from
male or female sheep, cows or goats. They are Kodshim Kalim, and may
therefore be slaughtered in the entire Azarah (and not only in its northern
part). Before its slaughter, the owner presses his hands on the head of the
animal (Semichah). The blood of the Shelamim is cast on the northeastern and
southwestern corners of the Mizbe'ach (Shenayim she'Hen Arba). Nesachim (a
meal offering consisting of flour and oil and a wine libation) are brought as
part of the Korban (Bamidbar 15:3-12). The meal offering is completely burned
on the Mizbe'ach and the wine is poured into one of the Sefalim (the silver
libation pipes located at the top of the southwest corner of the Mizbe'ach)
(RAMBAM and RA'AVAD Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 2:1). The amount of flour,
oil and wine needed depends upon the animal offered, as specified in Bamidbar
(c) The Chazeh (breast) and Shok (thigh) of the Shelamim were given to the
Kohen (Vayikra 7:34). Certain fats and other parts of the Korban were offered
on the Mizbe'ach (Vayikra 3:3-4, 9-10, 14-15). The owner and his guests (men
or women) eat the rest of the Korban inside the borders of the city of
Yerushalayim. The meat may be cooked in any fashion and is eaten for two days
and the intervening night.
(d) Although the Korban Shelamim that is offered by an individual is
generally a voluntary sacrifice (Shalmei Nedavah), some Korbenos Shelamim are
obligatory (Shalmei Chovah). Two types of Korbenos Shelamim that are
obligatory are the Shalmei Chagigah (see Background to Beitzah 19:9) and the
Shalmei Simchah (see Background to Beitzah 19:13). At the time of the Milu'im
(when the Mishkan was inaugurated), Shalmei Chovah were offered as well.
17) [line 21] SOMCHIN (SEMICHAH)
Semichah refers to the Mitzvah for a person to press his hands with all his
might on the head of his animal sacrifice before it is slaughtered, as
described in Vayikra (1:4).
18) [line 21] OLOS (OLAS YACHID)
(a) A person may offer a Korban in the Beis ha'Mikdash as a voluntary
sacrifice (Olas Nedavah), as it states in Vayikra 1:2. Voluntary Korbanos may
be Olos (which are burned entirely on the Mizbe'ach, see Vayikra 1:2-17, 6:1-
6), Shelamim (parts of which are eaten, see Vayikra 3:1-17, 7:11-21, 7:28-37)
or Menachos (flour offerings, see Vayikra 2:1-13, 6:7-11, 7:9-10).
(b) Korbenos Olah are Kodshei Kodashim and therefore they may only be
slaughtered in the northern part of the Azarah. Before its slaughter, the
owner presses his hands on the head of the animal (Semichah). The blood of
the Olah is cast on the northeastern and southwestern corners of the
Mizbe'ach (Shenayim she'Hen Arba). Nesachim (a meal offering consisting of
flour and oil and a wine libation) are brought as part of the Korban
(Bamidbar 15:3-12). The meal offering is completely burned on the Mizbe'ach
and the wine is poured into one of the Sefalim (the silver libation pipes
located at the top of the southwest corner of the Mizbe'ach) (RAMBAM and
RA'AVAD Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 2:1). The amount of flour, oil and wine
needed depends upon the animal offered, as specified in Bamidbar ibid.
(c) The skin of the Olah is given to the Kohanim and the rest of the animal
is dismembered and entirely burned on the Mizbe'ach.
(d) A Korban Olah offered by an individual that is obligatory (Olas Chovah)
is the Olas Re'iyah. Every Jewish male is required to bring a Korban Olas
Re'iyah on the three festivals (Devarim 16:16). If the Korban was not brought
on the first day of the festival, it may be brought on any of the other days
of the festival (i.e. the next six days of Pesach, or the next seven days of
Sukos). On Shavu'os, if it was not brought on Yom Tov, it may be brought on
the six days following the festival (Chagigah 17a).
19) [line 38] CHAGIGAS CHAMISHAH ASAR/CHAGIGAS ARBA'AH ASAR
(a) Chagigas Chamishah Asar refers to the Korban Chagigah that is brought on
the first day of Pesach that is the obligatory Korban Chagigah that a person
must bring during all festivals. Every Jewish male is obligated to come to
the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash on Pesach, Shavu'os and Sukos, and bring an
animal as a Korban Chagigah, as the Torah states, "Shalosh Regalim Tachog Li
ba'Shanah" (Shemos 23:14).
(b) Chagigas Arba'ah Asar refers to a special Korban Chagigah that is brought
on Erev Pesach. The Torah requires that each Korban Pesach be eaten by a
designated group of people. When many people share a Korban Pesach such that
there is not enough meat to provide a full meal for each of them, a Korban
Chagigah is brought along with it. The members of the group eat the Korban
Chagigah before the Korban Pesach to ensure that they eat the Korban Pesach
Al ha'Sova (when they are satiated) (see Insights to Pesachim 70:1).