(Permission is granted to print and redistribute this material
as long as this header and the footer at the end are included.)


prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

Previous daf

Bava Metzia 44


(a) We just learned that, according to Beis Hillel, a Shomer does not become a Shole'ach Yad with Machshavah alone from "Im Lo Shalach Yado bi'Meleches Re'eihu".
What do Beis Shamai learn from "Al Kol *D'var* Pesha" (Mishpatim, in connection with the Chiyuv of a Shomer)?

(b) What do Beis Hillel learn from "Al Kol *D'var* Pesha"?

(c) Rabah confines the Din of 'Hitah es ha'Chavis' to where the barrel subsequently broke be'Ones. But in the event that the wine turned sour, he maintains, the Shomer must pay for the entire barrel of wine.
Why is that?

(a) How does Shmuel interpret our Mishnah '*Higbihah ve'Natal Heimenu Revi'is* ve'Nishberah, Meshalem D'mei Kulah'?

(b) Why is this not a proof that Shmuel holds 'Shelichus Yad Einah Tzerichah Chesaron'?

(c) Based on Rabah's Din, Rav Ashi asks what the Din will be if the Shomer picks up the purse he is looking after, intending to take a Dinar.
Why might he be considered a Shole'ach Yad, even though a Dinar does not need the purse like wine needs the barrel?

(d) What is the outcome of the She'eilah?

***** Hadran Alach *****

***** Perek ha'Zahav *****


(a) What does the Tana of our Mishnah mean when he says that gold acquires silver, but not vice-versa?

(b) What is the reason for this distinction?

(c) Which is considered the Metaltelin (and acquires) between ...

  1. ... copper P'rutos and a silver coin?
  2. ... a good coin and a bad one? What does a bad coin mean in this context?
  3. ... a minted coin and uncoined metal?
(a) 'Kol ha'Metaltelin Konin Zeh es Zeh'.
In which two ways can Metaltelin acquire Metaltelin

(b) What does 'Kol' come to include?

(c) Even though a coin does not acquire Metaltelin, the one who retracts receives a 'Mi she'Para'. What is a 'Mi she'Para'?

(d) Rebbi Shimon Omer 'Kol she'ha'Kesef be'Yado, Yado Al ha'Elyonah'.
In which point does he argue with the Rabbanan?

(a) When Rebbi taught Rebbi Shimon his son 'ha'Zahav Koneh es ha'Kesef', what did Rebbi Shimon remind his father?

(b) We have already learned why gold acquires silver.
But why did Rebbi initially think the opposite? Why might gold be the currency, and silver the Metaltelin?

Answers to questions



(a) How does Rav Ashi prove (from the Seifa 'ha'Nechoshes Koneh es ha'Kesef') that what Rebbi said in his younger years is the version that he must have heard from Rebbi Meir (the presumed author of a S'tam Mishnah)?

(b) How do we refute Rav Ashi's proof? Why would Rebbi Meir need to insert 'ha'Nechoshes Koneh es ha'Kesef' even if silver was considered currency against gold?

(c) Then why *is* copper considered Metaltelin against silver?

(d) Who else (do we initially think) holds that gold is considered currency against silver?

(a) Rav borrowed gold coins from Rebbi Chiya's daughter (his cousin). Note, that throughout the Sugya, 'Dinrim' refers to gold coins, although this is not the case in most other places in Shas.
Why did he come before Rebbi Chiya after their value rose? What was the problem?

(b) Rebbi Chiya ruled that Rav should return the loan in the same denomination as he borrowed it.
What do we try to prove from there? What would be the problem if gold coins were considered fruit?

(c) We answer that Rav had other gold coins at the time.
Why would that make any difference?

(d) To what do we compare a case of Sa'ah be'Sa'ah where the borrower had fruit at the time that he borrowed it?

(a) The Tana of the Beraisa gives the value of a P'rutah as an eighth of an Italian Isar, an Italian Isar as one twenty-fourth of a silver Dinar, and a silver Dinar as one twenty-fifth of a golden Dinar.
What are the ramifications of the fact that ...
  1. ... a P'rutah is an eighth of an Italian Isar?
  2. ... an Italian Isar is one twenty-fourth of a silver Dinar?
  3. ... a silver Dinar is one twenty-fifth of a golden Dinar?
(b) What do we prove from here?

(c) Bearing in mind that the Shiur for Pidyon ha'Ben is twenty Shekalim (the equivalent of four Dinrim, bearing in mind that the Shekel is really a Sela [double the amount of a regular Shekel]), how much must the father give the Kohen for Pidyon ha'Ben in terms of a golden Dinar?

(d) That being the case, how much change would the Kohen have to give the father, if the latter gave him a golden Dinar, assuming a golden Dinar could purchase ...

  1. ... only twenty silver Dinrim (see Maharshal and Maharam)?
  2. ... as much as thirty silver Dinrim?
(a) In the Mishnah in Ma'aser-Sheini, Beis Shamai forbid converting silver Sela'im into golden Dinrim.
Why would one want to do that?

(b) What do Beis Hillel say?

(c) Rebbi Yochanan and Resh Lakish discuss the Machlokes. According to one of them, it is confined to converting Sela'im on to Dinrim.
Why will even Beis Shamai agree that one may convert the Ma'aser Sheini fruit itself on to gold coins?

(a) How can Beis Shamai consider gold coins as currency, when a moment ago, they considered it to be fruit?

(b) How does he (Rebbi Yochanan or Resh Lakish) prove this from silver according to Beis Hillel?

(a) According to the other opinion, they even argue over converting the fruit itself (which Beis Shamai forbids, because they always consider gold to be fruit).
What problem do we have with that?

(b) How do we answer the Kashya? Why does the Tana find it necessary to present the case of converting silver coins onto gold ones?

Answers to questions

Next daf


For further information on
subscriptions, archives and sponsorships,
contact Kollel Iyun Hadaf,