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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Bava Metzia 24

1) Mar Zutra the Chasid's host once had his silver cup stolen.
How did Mar Zutra discover the thief?


(a) We learned in a Beraisa that Rebbi Shimon ben Elazar (in our Mishnah) concedes that the finder is obligated to announce new vessels which the owner [Talmid-Chacham] will recognize immediately). The Tana gives three examples of new vessels which he will not: twigs of needles and of forks.
What is the third thing on the list?

(b) What kinds of forks is the Tana talking about?

(c) Why are twigs in this context called 'Badi'?

(d) In what connection does the Sugya in Sukah say 'Alah Echad be'Bad Echad'?

(a) What does Rebbi Shimon ben Elazar say about someone who saves from a wild animal, a raging torrent, or who finds something in a public street or public place?

(b) We ask whether Rebbi Shimon ben Elazar stated his Din even where there are a majority of Jews, and if the Rabbanan argue with him.
Which series of three She'eilos follows?

(c) What do we try to prove from the Beraisa, which permits the finder to keep money that he found in a Beis ha'Kenesses or a Beis ha'Medrash?

(d) We try and refute this proof by establishing the Beraisa by money that is scattered.
What is wrong with this explanation?

(a) Initially, we go on to refute the proof by establishing Batei K'nesi'os as places where Nochrim gather for discussions and meetings.
How do we establish Batei Medrashos (and ultimately Batei K'nesi'os)?

(b) What were Nochrim doing residing in Jewish Batei K'nesi'os and Batei Medrashos?

(c) The Mishnah in Machshirin obligates someone who finds something in a town which contains a majority of Jewish residents to announce what he finds, but permits him to keep it of most of the residents are Nochrim.
How do we refute the proof from here that ...

  1. ... Rebbi Shimon ben Elazar only permits the finder to keep what he finds where there are majority of Nochrim?
  2. ... the Rabbanan agree with Rebbi Shimon ben Elazar where there are a majority of Nochrim?
(d) Why does the fact that the article is covered obligate the finder to return it?
(a) What does the Mishnah later rule with regard to someone who finds a covered article in a trash-heap?

(b) In that case, how does the covered article in the previous case come to be in the hands of the finder? What does Rav Papa say?

(a) Alternatively, the author of the Beraisa is still the Rabbanan, but we reinterpret 'Eino Chayav le'Hachriz'.
What do we extrapolate from these words?

(b) What is then the case?

(c) What can we then prove from here regarding the opinion of the Rabbanan?

Answers to questions



(a) What did Rav Asi say about someone who finds a barrel of wine in a town with a majority of Nochrim, regarding ...
  1. ... the obligation to announce it?
  2. ... permission to drink it?
(b) What will happen if a Jew then identifies it?

(c) What is the alternative to proving from here that Rebbi Shimon ben Elazar confines his ruling to where there are a majority of Nochrim?

(d) Seeing as the wine is forbidden be'Hana'ah to the finder anyway, what is the point of the ruling 'Muteres Mishum Metzi'ah'?

(a) What did Rav Yehudah rule with regard to that man who found four Zuz wrapped in a cloth, which had been cast into the River Biran?

(b) Why did he not permit him to keep them because it was comparable to 'Zuto shel Yam'?

(c) What do we try to prove from here?

(d) We refute this proof however, by countering that in the same way as a Jew probably lost it, a Jew also probably found it (so the owner is not Meya'esh).
How do we know that a Jew probably ...

  1. ... lost it?
  2. ... found it?
(a) What did Rav Yehudah ask Shmuel as they walked through the market where they sold crushed-wheat (for porridge-making)?

(b) What did Shmuel mean when he ruled that the finder was permitted to keep the purse, and then, that he had to return it?

(c) What did Rav Nachman rule when Rava asked him the same question as Rav Yehudah asked Shmuel, whilst they were walking through the leather-merchants market?

(d) And what did he reply when Rava asked him 'va'ha'Lo Hu Omed ve'Tzove'ach'?

(a) What did Abaye rule with regard to the case of the vulture which picked up a piece of meat in the main street and deposited it among the palm-trees of bar Meryon?

(b) Why is there no proof from here that the Halachah is like Rebbi Shimon ben Elazar even where there are a majority of Jews?

(c) What does Rav rule concerning meat that has been hidden from the eye?

(d) Then why did Abaye permit Bei bar Meryon to keep the piece of mean that the vulture dropped among his palm-trees?

(a) On what grounds did Beis-Din permit Rebbi Chanina to keep the Shechted goat that he found between Teverya and Tzipori?

(b) They also permitted him to eat it because of Rebbi Chananya the son of Rebbi Yossi Ha'gelili.
What does he say?

(c) What does Rebbi Yehudah hold?

(d) In which case did Rebbi side with ...

  1. ... Rebbi Yehudah?
  2. ... Rebbi Chananya the son of Rebbi Yossi Ha'gelili?
(a) Seeing as they permitted Rebbi Chanina to eat the goat, it must be speaking when there were a majority of Jews, yet he was permitted to keep it.
Why is there no proof from here that Rebbi Shimon's ruling extends even to where there are a majority of Jews?

(b) What did Rebbi Asi (Rebbi Yochanan or the Rabbanim in the Beis-ha'Medrash) rule when Rebbi Ami asked him about Shechted fledglings that he found between Teverya and Tzipori?

(c) Rebbi Yitzchak Nafcha received a similar ruling from Rebbi Yochanan (or from the Rabbanim in the Beis-ha'Medrash).
What did he find there?

(a) What does the Tana of our Mishnah say about the following: fruit in a vessel or an empty vessel, money in a purse or an empty purse?

(b) What do they all have in common?

Answers to questions

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