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Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Bava Metzia 87



(a) Rebbi Elazar comment on the fact that Avraham promised his guests bread, and then ran to Shecht bulls - that Tzadikim promise little but do a lot.

(b) And he learns from Efron that Resha'im talk much but do nothing - because initially, Efron offered Avraham the Me'aras Hamachpelah free of charge (see Eitz Yosef), and in the end, he insisted on being paid in international currency (in the form of Kantarin).

(c) 'Kantarin' are - coins of a hundred Manah (there are fifty regular Shekalim in a Manah).

(a) Rebbi Yitzchak learns from the fact that the Pasuk refers to both Kemach and So'les - that Avraham must have told Sarah to bring So'les (good-quality flour), and she began to prepare Kemach (poor-quality flour), from which we see that a woman tends to be miserly towards her guests.

(b) Efrayim Maksha'ah quoting Rebbi Meir explains that Sarah did not serve bread, as Avraham originally instructed her because, in anticipation of the baby that she would soon bear, her youth returned to her and she became a Nidah - and Avraham was particular to eat his Chulin (bread) be'Taharah.

(c) Even though the Angels knew exactly where Sarah was, they nevertheless asked Avraham where she was, explains Rav Yehudah Amar Rav (or Rebbi Yitzchak) - in order to endear her on her husband, when he would answer with pride that she was in the tent (because of her high level of modesty).

(d) Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Chanina gives a different reason for their question. He explains - that they wanted to send her the Kos shel B'rachah (see Agados Maharsha), though it is unclear why a Kos shel B'rachah was used, seeing as they did not eat bread.

(a) Rebbi Yossi explains that the dots on the letters 'Alef, 'Yud' and 'Vav' of "Va'yomru *Eilav* Ayei Sarah Ishtecha" - signify that they also asked Sarah about Avraham, and we learn from here that it is Derech Eretz to inquire about the well-being of one's host from the hostess and vice-versa.

(b) In spite of Shmuel, who forbids greeting a woman at all, even through a third person - the Angels inquired about Sarah, because a. they were asking her husband, and b. they were merely inquiring after her well-being, and not sending her regards.

(c) Rav Chisda interprets Sarah's surprise when she heard that she would bear a child - to the fact that she did not see how her aging skin could become youthful once again, or how her wrinkles would straighten out.

(d) Sarah said "va'Adoni Zaken" - whereas Hashem quoted her to Avraham as having said "va'Ani Zakanti". Hashem deliberately misquoted her, in order to maintain Shalom Bayis between them.

(a) Despite the fact that Sarah only gave birth to one son, the Torah writes "Mi Milel le'Avraham, Heinikah *Banim* Sarah", in the plural - because in response to the people's skepticism that Sarah could have given birth, Avraham invited all the leaders of the generation, whilst Sarah invited their wives, Rebbi Levi explains, together with their babies, but not their nurses. A great miracle occurred, and Sarah fed all the babies.

(b) Hashem countered their skepticism over the possibility that Avraham at the age of a hundred, should have fathered a son - by making Yitzchak look the splitting image of his father, so that everyone had to admit that he was Avraham's son.

(c) The first person to age was Avraham, to become ill (and confined to bed) before dying was Yitzchak (previously, someone who was destined to die would sneeze and drop dead). The first person to recover from an illness was - the Navi Elisha.


1. Avraham Davened for old age - in order to distinguish between father and son (until that happened, people were confusing Avraham and Yitzchak (calling Yitzchak Avraham, and Avraham, Yitzchak).
2. ... Ya'akov Davened for weakness to precede death - to give a person a chance to write his last will and testament.
(a) We learn from the Pasuk "ve'Elisha Chalah es Cholyo *Asher Yamus Bah*" - that Elisha was ill over and above the illness that led to his death (in fact, he was ill on two other occasions, as we shall now see).

(b) Elisha's third illness is the one that led to his death. His two other illnesses were caused by - a. his total rejection of his servant Gechazi (instead of rejecting him with his left hand and drawing him close with his right).

(c) When Rav Acha B'rei de'Rav Yosef asked Rav Chisda whether our Mishnah (citing the words of Rebbi Yochanan ben Masya) reads 'Pas Kitnis' or 'Pas ve'Kitnis' - he replied that the correct version is Pas ve'Kitnis.

(d) What Rav Chisda actually said was that 'Kitnis requires a 'Vav' like 'Murdaya de'Livros', which means like a barge-pole used by the sailors who ferried their barges down the river Livros (which presumably, was a river that flowed near his home-town). In any event, a barge-pole is shaped like a 'Vav'.

(a) Raban Shimon ben Gamliel in our Mishnah concludes 'ha'Kol Ke'Minhag ha'Medinah'. This concurs with the opinion of the Chachamim of Rebbi Yehoshua in Beraisa. In the case 'ha'Socher es ha'Po'el, ve'Amar Lo ke'Echad u'Shenayim mi'B'nei ha'Ir', Rebbi Yehoshua concludes - Nosen Lo ke'Pachos she'bi'S'chiros (based on the principle 'ha'Motzi me'Chavero Alav ha'Re'ayah').

(b) According to the Chachamim - he receives an average wage ('ha'Kol ke'Minhag ha'Medinah').

(a) Our Mishnah now discusses the Dinim of a laborer eating from the food with which he is working. A laborer is permitted to eat, presuming that he works with ...
1. ... Mechubar (that is attached to the ground) - only during 'G'mar Melachah' (which means whilst he is detaching the fruit from the tree.
2. ... Talush (which is detached) - as long as it is prior to the stage of Nigmerah Melachto.
(b) The definition of 'Nigmerah Melachto' by Talush - is once it has reached the stage when it is ready to be Ma'asered or to have Chalah taken from it (whichever is applicable).

(c) A laborer is ever allowed to eat - when he works in food that does not grow from the ground.

(d) An example of ...

1. ... Mechubar that is not Nigmerah Melachto - is weeding the onion-beds.
2. ... Talush that *is* - is milking or cheese-making.



(a) We learn that a laborer may eat from the grapes that he is picking from the Pasuk in Ki Seitzei "Ki Savo be'Kerem Re'acha Ve'achalta Anavim". We initially learn that this concession extends to other fruit - by treating "Kerem" as a Binyan Av. Just as the fruit of a vineyard grows from the ground and is speaking by G'mar Melachah (as we shall now see), so too all fruits ... .

(b) We learn from the Pasuk "ve'El sKelyecha Lo Siten" that this Din is referring specifically to a laborer who is picking the grapes (the G'mar Melachah of fruit) - by extrapolating "ve'El *Kelyecha* Lo Siten", 'Ela le'Keilav shel Ba'al ha'Bayis Titen'.

(c) We reject this 'Binyan Av' however, on the grounds - that the Mitzvah of 'Olelos' (incomplete clusters that must be left on the tree for the poor) applies exclusively to grapes (so perhaps this Mitzvah does too).

(d) If we cannot incorporate other fruit from grapes, then we need a second source to form a 'Binyan Av from two Pesukim' - the Pasuk (also in Ki Seitzei) "Ki Savo be'Kamas Re'echa ... ".

(a) The important condition that we learn from the Pasuk (in connection with Kamah) "ve'Chermesh Lo Sanif" is - that, like by Kerem, the concession is confined to G'mar Melachah (since that is when a sickle is used).

(b) We learn from the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' "Ki Savo *be'Kamas* Re'echa" from "me'Hachel Chermesh *ba'Kamah*" (written by the Omer, which is brought from barley) - that the Pasuk is referring to crops that are subject to Chalah.

(c) Despite the fact that the concession pertains to crops that are subject to Chalah, we know that it extends to fruit that is not - from 'Kerem'.

(a) The problem with the 'Mah Matzinu' of corn and grapes is - that they both go on the Mizbe'ach (in the form of Menachos and Nesachim), in which case, the fruit they would incorporate would be olives (since oil is an intrinsic part of the Menachos).

(b) We would however, need a 'Mah Matzinu' to incorporate olives, because although they are called "Kerem Zayis", they are not called "Kerem" (S'tam).

(a) So we try to include fruits that do not go on the Mizbe'ach from "Chermesh" ('Le'rabos Kol Ba'alei Chermesh'). We repudiate the Kashya that Chermesh is needed to confine the concession to eat to the time of 'Chermesh' (G'mar Melachah) - because we know that already from "ve'El Kelyecha Lo Siten".

(b) We nevertheless reject "Chermesh" as a source for all other species of fruit - because then we would only include fruit that is cut with a sickle, but not fruit that is picked by hand.

(c) An example of ...

1. ... 'fruit' that is a bar Chermesh is - legumes.
2. ... fruit that is not a bar Chermesh is - olives and dates.
(a) So Rebbi Yitzchak finally learns other fruit from "Kamah", 'Le'rabos Kol Ba'alei Kamah'. We did indeed use "Kamah" for a 'Gezeirah-Shavah', to confine the concession to crops that are subject to Chalah - but that was before we included legumes from "Chermesh" (once we did, the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' is proved to be unworkable).

(b) The problem with the Pasuk "Ki Savo be'Kerem Re'echa, ve'Achalta" is - that it now appears to be superfluous.

(c) To answer this, Rava cites a Beraisa, which explains the entire Pasuk. The Tana learns from ...

1. ... the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' "Ki Savo be'Kerem Re'echa" "be'Yomo Titen S'charo, ve'Lo Savo Alav ha'Shemesh" - that the former Pasuk is speaking about a laborer (just like the latter one is).
2. ... the Pasuk "be'Kerem *Re'echa*" - 've'Lo be'Kerem Kuti' (that the basic prohibition for a laborer to place some of the fruit he is picking into his own basket does not extend to someone who is working for a Nochri).
(d) Those who hold that Gezel Kuti is permitted, learn from the latter Pasuk (seeing as no special Pasuk is needed to permit a laborer to eat from a Nochri's crops) - "be'Kerem *Re'echa*" - 've'Lo be'Kerem Hekdesh' (to preclude a laborer working for Hekdesh from the concession of eating from the fruit that he is picking).
(a) The Tana Darshens from "Ve'achalta", 've'Lo Motzetz' (sucking the juice and spitting out the pits); from ...
1. ... "Anavim" - 've'Lo Anavim ve'Davar Acher' (forbidding him to eat the fruit together with something that adds sweetness to it, to inrease his desire to eat more.
2. ... "ke'Nafshecha" - 'ke'Nefesh shel Ba'al ha'Bayis' (exempting the laborer from Ma'asering the fruit that he eats).
(b) The owner is Patur from Ma'asering - because the grapes have not yet reached the stage of G'mar Melachah (seeing as S'tam grapes are meant for wine-making, for which the G'mar Melachah is when the wine flows into the pit).

(c) We might otherwise have thought that the laborer is Chayav to Ma'aser what he eats, even though the owner is Patur - because, since he is permitted to eat against the will of the owner, it is like a sale, which fixes for Ma'aser (as we shall see later), even though the G'mar Melachah has not yet occurred.

(d) We have already learned from "ve'El Kelyecha Lo Siten", that the Pasuk is speaking at the time of G'mar Melachah. The Tana Darshens from "Sov'echa", 've'Lo Achilah Gasah' (that the laborer is forbidden to stuff himself with the fruit that he is picking).

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