POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous daf Bava Metzia 105
BAVA METZIA 101-105 - Ari Kornfeld has generously sponsored the
Dafyomi publications for these Dafim for the benefit of Klal
1) WHAT IS CONSIDERED ONE ISKA
(a) (Rava): If two documents were written for one Iska, it is
considered two investments, this hurts the lender (if
there is a loss on one and a gain on the other, his share
of the loss is more than his share of the gain (so it is
not usury) - had it all been in one document, the loss
and profit would have cancelled each other);
2) RESPONSIBILITY OF A WORKER
(b) If two Iskos were combined into one document, it is
considered one investment, this hurts the borrower (if
there is a loss on one and a gain on the other, they
cancel each other - had it all been in two documents, his
share of the loss would have been less than his share of
(c) (Rava): Reuven received an Iska from Shimon; there was a
loss; Reuven then toiled (R. Chananel - after the time
for the Iska expired; Ra'avad - using money of another
Iska) and recovered the loss, without telling Shimon. He
cannot force Shimon to accept a larger share of the loss
than of the gain;
1. Shimon can say, Reuven toiled in order that people
will not say that he is a failure regarding Iska.
(d) (Rava): Reuven and Shimon jointly received an Iska from
Levi; there was a profit. Reuven wanted to stop in the
middle - Shimon can demand that they continue for the
1. Reuven cannot demand to take his share of the
profits, because the profit is tied to the principal
(perhaps they will need to use the profits);
2. He cannot demand to take his share of the profits
and principal, each partner's share is tied to the
3. Even if Reuven offers 'If you will lose, I will
share the loss with you' - Shimon can demand that
they stay together, since the Mazel of two people is
better than that of one.
(a) (Mishnah): If Reuven was Choker a field from Shimon; he
cannot refuse to weed, even though he pays the agreed
3) LAWS OF TUMAH RELATED TO WEAK THINGS
1. Shimon can say, I do not want the field to be full
of weeds when you leave.
(b) (Gemara): Even if Reuven offers to plow afterwards to
kill the weeds, Shimon can refuse - he can say, if you do
not weed, (my share of the) the produce will be low
1. Reuven cannot offer to buy good produce to pay the
rental - Shimon can demand produce of his own field.
(c) Objection (Mishnah): Shimon can say, I do not want the
field to be full of weeds when you leave;
2. Reuven cannot offer to weed only the portion from
which he must pay the rental - Shimon can say, I do
not want my land to get a bad reputation.
1. Apparently, this is Shimon's only claim!
(d) Retraction: Rather, Reuven's offer to plow afterwards is
insufficient, for seeds of the weeds will sprout the next
(e) (Mishnah): If Reuven accepted to be a sharecropper on
Shimon's field and it produced very little - if it
produces enough to make a pile, Reuven must work it;
(f) R. Yehudah: That is unreasonable (the quantity should
depend on the size of the field)!
1. Rather, it must yield as much as the seeds (this
will be explained later).
(g) (Gemara - Beraisa): If Reuven accepted to be a
sharecropper on Shimon's field and it produced very
little - if it produces enough to make a pile, Reuven
must work it, for so he writes: 'I will plow, seed,
harvest, thresh, winnow and make a pile, and we will each
(h) Question: What is considered a pile?
(i) Answer (R. Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina): Enough that the
pitchfork will stand in it.
(j) Question: If the prongs can be seen from both sides, what
is the law?
(k) Answer (R. Avahu): the prongs must be totally covered.
(l) (Levi): It must produce 3 Sa'im.
(m) (D'vei R. Yanai): It must produce 2 Sa'im.
(n) (Reish Lakish): The 2 Sa'im are above the expenditures.
(a) (Mishnah - Beis Shamai): Priztei (this will be explained)
olives and grapes receive Tum'ah;
(b) Beis Hillel say, they do not receive Tum'ah.
(c) Question: What are Pritzei olives?
(d) Answer (Rav Huna): Bad olives that never ripen.
(e) Question: How much oil can they produce and still be
(f) Answer #1 (R. Elazar): Four Kavim from the amount pressed
under a beam.
(g) Answer #2 (D'vei R. Yanai): Two Sa'im from the amount
pressed under a beam.
1. They do not argue - in R. Elazar's area, 1 Kor of
olives are pressed under a beam, in R. Yanai's area,
(h) (Beraisa): A Zav (a man Tamei on account of emissions)
and a Tahor person went together on a weak tree or branch
- the Tahor person is Tamei (Rambam - because the Zav
makes the tree or branch bend, moving the Tahor person).
4) LOADS THAT MUST BE PUT DOWN
(i) Question: What is considered a weak tree?
(j) Answer (D'vei R. Yanai): The trunk (where the branches
come out) is not the volume of a fourth of a Kav.
(k) Question: What is considered a weak branch?
(l) Answer (Reish Lakish): It can be concealed (surrounded)
by one's hand.
(m) (Mishnah): One who walks through a Beis ha'Pras (a field
in which a grave was plowed, we are concerned that the
plow dragged bones) on top of rocks that a person can
move, or rides on a weak person or animal - he is Tamei
(mid'Rabanan, we suspect that his weight helped move a
(n) Question: What is considered a weak person?
(o) Answer (Reish Lakish): When he carries someone, his knees
(p) Question: What is considered a weak animal?
(q) Answer (D'vei R. Yanai): When one rides it, it excretes.
(a) (D'vei R. Yanai): Four Kavim is the quantity regarding
prayer and Tefilin.
5) THE AMOUNT OF PRODUCE WORTH FARMING
(b) Question: To what law of prayer does he refer?
(c) Answer (Beraisa): One who is carrying a load - if it is
less than four Kavim, he may pray while carrying it; if
it is four Kavim or more, he must put it down before
(d) Question: To what law of Tefilin does he refer?
(e) Answer (Beraisa): One may not carry a load of four Kavim
on his head while wearing Tefilin on his head if it
1. If it does not compress them it is permitted.
(f) (R. Chiya): One who is wearing Tefilin and carries manure
on his head - he should not move the head Tefilin to the
side or tie them on his thigh, for this is disgraceful;
1. Rather, he should tie them on his arm, next to his
(g) (D'vei Shila): One may not even carry a Tefilin bag on
his head while wearing Tefilin on his head;
(h) Question: According to d'vei Shila, how much is forbidden
to carry on one's head along with Tefilin?
(i) Answer (Abaye): Even a 16th of a Litra of Pumbadisa.
(a) (Mishnah - R. Yehudah): It is unreasonable to say 'a
pile' - rather, it must yield as much as the seeds.
6) REGION-WIDE AFFLICTIONS
(b) Question: How much is this?
(c) Version #1 (Rashi) Answer #1 (R. Ami citing R. Yochanan):
If a Beis Kor (the amount of land in which a Kor of seed
is sown) produces four Sa'im (which, when seeded,
produces a Kor of seed). (Gra - four Kavim).
(d) Version #2 (Tosfos) Answer #1 (R. Ami citing R.
Yochanan): If the amount of land fitting to produce a Kor
only produces four Sa'im (the amount needed to seed land
of this size).
(e) Answer #2 (R. Ami himself): If that amount of land
produces eight Sa'im (Gra - Kavim).
(f) (An elder): (They do not argue) -in R. Yochanan's day,
land was more fertile, from (Rashi - the yield of) four
Sa'im one could seed such an area of land; in R. Ami's
day, eight Sa'im were needed.
(g) (Mishnah): Wind scattered Reuven's sheaves (and we do not
know how much Leket (fallen sheaves that must be left for
the poor) was there) - we estimate how much Leket was fit
to be there, and he gives this to the poor;
(h) Version #1 (Rashi): R. Shimon ben Gamliel says, (we need
not estimate) the amount of Leket fit to fall (it is
(i) Version #2 (Rambam): R. Shimon ben Gamliel says, he gives
the amount that was seeded.
(j) Question: How much is this?
(k) Answer (Rav Dimi citing R. Yochanan): Four Kavim to a
(l) Question (R. Yirmeyah): Does he mean for an area fit to
produce a Kor of grain, or seed?
(m) Answer (Ravin): For a Kor of seed.
(n) Question: Does he mean, when seeding by hand, or (as it
falls from a punctured vessel drawn) by oxen?
(o) This question is not resolved.
(a) (Mishnah): Reuven was a Choker on Shimon's field; the
crop was stricken by locusts or withered (by the sun or
1. If the entire province was stricken, he deducts from
the rental; if not, he pays the full rental.
(b) (Gemara) Question: What is a region-wide affliction?
2. R. Yehudah says, if the rent was a fixed amount of
money, in either case he pays the full rental.
(c) Answer #1 (Rav Yehudah): The majority of the valley was
(d) Answer #2 (Ula): Fields in all four directions were
(e) Questions (according to Ula): What if only the closest
row of the surrounding fields was stricken? What if the
surrounding fields were stricken, except for the row
closest to Shimon's field?
(f) Questions: What if the following separated between them:
a fallow field? Fields planted for fodder (that were not
stricken - do we say, had they been planted with grain,
they would have been stricken)? Fields planted for a
different crop (for people, and they were not stricken)?
1. Question: (If a different crop is not a separation)
- is wheat considered a different crop than barley?
(g) Question: If Shimon's field was stricken by dryness or
withering, or vice-versa, what is the law?
(h) These questions are not resolved.