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Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld

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Bava Metzia 87

1) THE ANGELS' VISIT (cont.)

(a) Why did they immediately agree to eat by Avraham, but Lot had to insist?
(b) (R. Elazar): This teaches that we may refuse the offer of a small person, not of an important person.
(c) Question: Avraham only offered bread, but he gave beef!
(d) (R. Elazar): This teaches that Tzadikim say little and do much.
1. The wicked say much and do not even do little!
2. We learn from Efron - at first, he said "Four hundred silver Shekalim (is not important, the land is a gift)" - in the end, "Avraham heard (the true desire of) Efron...400...Over la'Socher";
i. He demanded 400 coins each worth 10,000 Dinarim - there are places where 10,000 Dinarim is called 'Shekel'.
(e) Question: Avraham asked Sarah to take "Kemach Soles" - which did he mean?
(f) Answer (R. Yitzchak): (She wanted to give Kemach (regular flour), he insisted on Soles (fine flour)) - this teaches that woman are stingier with guests than men.
(g) Question: Avraham asked her to make "Ugos" (of bread), but we do not find that he served them!
(h) Answer (Efrayim Maksha'ah): Sarah became Nidah that day; and Avraham used to eat even Chulin in Taharah. (The bread became Tamei; Maharsha - Avraham ate Chulin like Kodesh. A Nidah is retroactively considered Temeah 24 hours before she sees blood regarding Kodesh; the angels told Avraham that Sarah would become Temeah that day.)
(i) Avraham told them that Sarah is in the tent - this teaches that she was modest.
(j) (Rav Yehudah): Even though the angels knew this, they asked where Sarah was, to endear her to Avraham.
(k) (R. Yosi bar Chanina): They asked in order to send her to drink from the cup over which they blessed after eating.
(l) (R. Yosi): There are dots over the letters 'Aleph, Yud, Vov' of "Elav" - this teaches that (they knew 'Ayo (where)' she was, they only asked because) it is proper conduct to inquire about the host's wife.
(m) Question: But Shmuel taught, we do not inquire about women at all!
(n) Answer: One may ask through her husband.
(o) (Rav Chisda): "Acharei Velosi Haysah Li Ednah" - After becoming wrinkled, her skin became smooth, she returned to her beauty.
(p) Question: She said "va'Adoni Zaken", but Hash-m told Avraham that she said "Va'ani Zakanti"!
(q) Answer (Tana d'vei R. Yishmael): Shal-m is so important that Hash-m switched her words (so Avraham would not know that she called him 'old').
(r) Question: "Heinikah Banim" - Sarah only had one son!
(s) Answer (R. Levi): Avraham made a big banquet on the day he weaned Yitzchak (to publicize the miracle). Everyone was saying that Sarah did not bear Yitzchak, rather, they found him deserted when he was a baby - to prove this, everyone brought a baby without anyone to nurse him, and asked Sarah to nurse him. Hash-m made a miracle that Sarah was able to nurse all the babies.
1. They had to admit that Sarah bore Yitzchak; they said, this is because she is only 90 - but Avraham is 100, surely it is not his son!
2. Hash-m immediately made Yitzchak's face resemble Avraham's, forcing them to admit that "Avraham Holid Es Yitzchak".
(t) Until Avraham, there were no visible signs of old age; people who wanted to talk with Avraham sometimes talked to Yitzchak (and vice-versa, because they looked the same). Avraham prayed for a solution, and Hash-m agreed - "V'Avraham Zaken Ba ba'Yamim".
(u) Until Yakov, there was no weakness (shortly before death; people did not know when to command or bless their children) - Yakov prayed for a solution, and Hash-m agreed - "Va'Yomer l'Yosef Hinei Avicha Choleh".
(v) Until Elisha, no one ever recovered from weakness (it only came shortly before death); he prayed, and recovered - "Chalyo Asher Yamus Bo" - implying, he was sick other times (and recovered).
(a) (Mishnah): Before they start working, tell them that you only promise them bread and legumes.
(b) Question (Rav Acha brei d'Rav Yosef): Is the text of the Mishnah 'bread of legumes' or 'bread and legumes'?
(c) Answer (Rav Chisda): I swear, it is 'Bread and legumes'.
(d) (Mishnah - R. Shimon ben Gamliel): There was no need for this - all is according to the local custom.
(e) Question: What does 'all' come to include?
(f) Answer: The following case (R. Shimon holds like Chachamim, the custom overrides the principal of 'to take money from another, one must bring proof').
1. (Mishnah - R. Yehoshua): One who hires a worker 'Like one or two of the people of the city', he gets the lowest wage people get;
2. Version #1 (Rambam): Chachamim say, he gets the average of the highest and lowest wages.
3. Version #2 (Rashi) Chachamim say, he gets an intermediate wage.
(a) (Mishnah): If one is working with finished food attached to the ground (Tosfos - it is ready to be harvested; Rashi - he is harvesting), or any labor with food that was detached which (needs further processing and therefore) is exempt from Ma'aser, he may eat;
(b) If one is working with unfinished attached food, or with detached (finished) food that must be tithed (before eating), or with food that did not grow from the ground, he may not eat.

(c) (Gemara) Question: How do we know this?
(d) Answer: "B'Cherem Re'echa you may eat".
(e) Question: How do we know that he may eat in places other than a vineyard?
(f) Answer #1: We learn from a vineyard: a worker may eat grapes in a vineyard, they grow from the ground and are finished - also anyone working with finished food that grows from the ground.
(g) Objection: We cannot learn from a vineyard - there, workers may eat, for the owner must also leave Olelos (deficient clusters) for the poor;
1. (Perhaps by other produce, by which there is no law of Olelos, workers may not eat!)
(h) Answer #2: We learn from Kamah (standing crop).
1. Question: How do we know that he may eat Kamah?
2. Answer: "B'Kamas Re'echa".
(i) Objection: We cannot learn from Kamah, for Chalah must be separated (when making a dough) from it.
1. Question: How do we know that the verse speaks of Kamah from which Chalah must be taken? Perhaps it speaks of any standing crop!
2. Answer: We learn a Gezeirah Shavah "Kamah-Kamah" from the Omer: just as that speaks of (barley) something Chalah is taken from, also here.
(j) Answer #3: We learn from a vineyard that permission to eat does not depend on liability to take Chalah.
1. Question: We cannot learn from a vineyard, one must leave Olelos there!
2. Answer: We learn from Kamah that permission to eat does not depend on Olelos.
i. The stringency of each is unlike the stringency of the other; the common side of both is that they grow from the ground and when finished, anyone working with them may eat - also anything that grows from the ground, when finished anyone working with it may eat.
(k) Objection: We cannot learn from the Tzad ha'Shavah, since (products of) both grapes and Kamah are offered on the Altar!
1. Concession: At least we can learn to olives, for they are offered on the Altar.
2. Question: We do not need to learn olives from the Tzad ha'Shavah - an olive orchard it itself called a vineyard - "Kerem Zayis"!
3. Answer (Rav Papa): It is called "Kerem Zayis", it is not called just 'Kerem'.
4. We still have no source for foods not offered on the Altar.
(l) Answer #3 (Shmuel): "*V*'Chermesh (*and* a scythe)" - this includes anything harvested with a scythe.
1. Question: That is needed to teach that one may eat only when (Rashi - he harvests them; Tosfos - they are ready for harvesting) with a scythe!
2. Answer: That we learn from "V'El Kelyecha Lo Siten".
(m) Objection: We only learn things harvested with a scythe - how do we know things not harvested with a scythe.
(n) Answer #4 (R. Yitzchak): "Kamah" - anything that stands (i.e. grows from the ground).
(o) Question: But we proved that "Kamah" only refers to things from which Chalah must be taken!
(p) Answer: That was before we expounded "V'Chermesh";
1. Now that "V'Chermesh" teaches anything harvested with a scythe, whether or not Chalah is taken from it, "Kamah" is extra to teach everything that grows from the ground.
(q) Question: Now that we learned everything from "Kamah" and "V'Chermesh", why did the Torah have to write "Kerem"?
(r) Answer (Rava): For the special laws of a vineyard.
1. (Beraisa): It says "Ki Savo" by eating in another's vineyard, and also by paying a worker the same day. Just as the latter speaks of a worker, also the former.
2. "B'Kerem Re'echa" - not in a Nochri's vineyard; (Rashi - there, you may even put into your vessels; Ritva - there, you may not take at all).
3. We understand this according to the opinion that it is forbidden to steal from Nochrim.
4. Question: According to the opinion that it is permitted to steal from them, (Rashi - the verse is not needed; Ritva - we cannot say that a worker is forbidden) - what do we learn from the verse?
5. Answer: "B'Cherem Re'echa" - not in a Hekdesh vineyard. (There, you may not eat.)
6. "V'Achalta" - not to suck the juice and discard the skin;
7. "Anavim" - not grapes and something else (to make them tastier);
8. K'Nafshecha" - the worker has the same law as the owner;
i. Just as the owner can eat without tithing (there is no obligation to tithe until making wine), also a worker.
9. "Savecha" - not gorging oneself.
10. "V'El Kelyecha Lo Siten" - you may eat only when you are putting in the owner's vessel (i.e. harvesting - Rashi; Tosfos - when they are ready to put in his vessel (i.e. fully ripe)).
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