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Bava Metzia 99

1) [line 2] B'EVED IVRI D'LO KANI LEI GUFEI (EVED IVRI) - [the Mishnah is referring to a case] of a Jewish slave, whose master does not acquire his body (see Background to Bava Metzia 71:16)

2) [line 3] EVED KENA'ANI (a Nochri slave)
(a) A Jew may acquire a Nochri slave or maidservant (Eved Kena'ani or Shifchah Kena'anis) by purchasing them from their Jewish or Nochri master. See Background to Bava Kama 87:2.
(b) A slave does not independently own property. Rather, any object that the slave acquires automatically becomes the possession of his master. Likewise, as long as an item is in the hands of the slave, it is considered to be in the hands of his master.

3) [line 4] HAKISHAH B'MAKEL V'HI SAVO - hit it with a stick and it will come [to me]

4) [line 20] IKA GAZYASA - there are corners/isolated areas
5) [line 21] DILMA KAIMA HASAM V'LO ASYA AZLA L'HEDYA - perhaps it will stand there (in the corner) and it will not come and walk out

6) [line 23] KORDOM - an axe or hatchet for chopping wood
7) [line 24] BIKE'A BO, KENA'O - once he has cut wood with it, he has acquired it (to the extent that the lender cannot retract the loan of the Kordom, as the Gemara will explain)

8) [line 26] L'CHAZARAH - with regard to [the lender's] retracting
9) [line 26] LO MATZI HADAR BEI MASH'IL - the lender is not able to retract [from the loan of the object]

10) [line 29] MA'AL LEFI TOVAS HANA'AH SHE'BO (TOVAS HANA'AH) - he (the lender) transgresses Me'ilah (when he gives the object of Hekdesh to the borrower) in accordance with the value of the Tovas Hana'ah in it (that is, he must pay to Hekdesh the value of the Tovas Hana'ah which he benefitted by lending the object)
The words "Tovas Hana'ah" denote the trivial benefit (in terms of pleasure or compensation) that a person receives in return for giving away an object or goods to which he has only very limited rights.

11) [line 34] K'DERECH SHE'TIKNU MESHICHAH BI'LEKUCHOS, KACH TIKNU MESHICHAH B'SHOMRIM - just as they (the Chachamim) instituted Meshichah for purchasers (so that the Kinyan is finalized with Meshichah), so did they institute Meshichah for Shomrim (so that the She'ilah is finalized with the Meshichah and the lender cannot retract); see Background to Bava Metzia 44:5:c (Meshichah)


12) [line 1] KARKA NIKNEIS B'CHESEF BI'SHTAR UV'CHAZAKAH (KINYAN CHAZAKAH) - land is acquired through money, a contract, or through a Chazakah
(a) When a person buys an object, he must make a Ma'aseh Kinyan, a formal Halachically-binding act denoting his acquisition of the object, in order for the sale to be irrevocably binding. Depending on what object one is acquiring, different Kinyanim are used (see Background to Bava Metzia 14:12). For acquiring land, the Kinyan can be made by the giving over of money, the writing of a Shtar, or the making of a Chazakah.
(b) Examples of Chazakah for real estate are Na'al (locking), Gadar (fencing in) and Paratz (making a breach in a fence to create an entrance) or any act that is done to *enhance* the land, such as digging to improve a field and the like (MISHNAH Bava Basra 42a).

13) [line 3] MAI AVIDTEI - what is it doing (i.e. what does Chazakah have to do with renting an object; when the renter does Meshichah (even before making a Chazakah) he is Koneh it!)

14) [line 5] CHAVITZA D'TAMREI - a cake of pressed dates
15) [line 6] AGAV HADADEI MIZDABNAN B'CHAMISHIM NAKI CHADA - when [they are sold] together, they are sold for forty-nine Perutos (lit. fifty less one)

16) [line 8] L'HEKDESH MESHALEM CHAMISHIM V'CHUMSHAIHU (CHOMESH) - to Hekdesh, one must pay fifty Perutos and a fifth (see Background to Bava Metzia 96:22)

17) [line 10] "V'ISH KI YOCHAL KODESH" (Vayikra 22:14) - "When a person eats Kodesh [by accident, he must add a fifth to its value and give to the Kohen compensation for the Kodesh]."

18) [line 14] SHAMIN BEIS SE'AH B'OSAH SADEH - we assess [damage done by an animal by eating produce growing from a field by evaluating] the value that an entire Beis Se'ah of that field [decreased as a result of the patch of fruit that was eaten] (RASHI; Tosfos explains that this means that we estimate a damaged Beis Se'ah as part of a field sixty time larger). (By assessing the damage in this way, the Mazik pays less than he would have had to pay had we evaluated the actual value of the fruit that was eaten.) (A Beis Se'ah is a parcel of land in which a Se'ah of grain is normally planted. The area of a Beis Se'ah is 2,500 square Amos, approximately 576 square meters (6,200 square feet) or 829.43 square meters (8927.9 square feet), depending upon the differing Halachic opinions.)

19) [line 16] NATAL EVEN O KORAH - if he (the treasurer of Hekdesh) took a stone or a beam of Hekdesh

20) [line 18] BENA'AH B'SOCH BEISO - he (the treasurer of Hekdesh) built it (the stone or beam) into his house

21) [line 21] HA'DAR B'CHATZER CHAVEIRO SHE'LO MI'DA'ATO TZARICH L'HA'ALOS LO SECHAR - one who lives in someone else's courtyard without his consent must pay him

22) [line 25] HEKDESH SHE'LO MI'DA'AS K'HEDYOT MI'DA'AS DAMI - what is done to Hekdesh without its knowledge is comparable to what is done to a private person with his knowledge (for the Almighty is omniscient, -Rashi)

23a) [line 26] HANEI SHEKULA'EI - these porters
b) [line 27] D'SAVRU CHAVISA D'CHAMRA L'CHENVA'AH - who broke a barrel of wine belonging to a store owner

24a) [last line] U'MENAKI LEI AGAR TIRCHEI - they deduct from [what they pay to the store owner as compensation] the amount of money that he was spared from having to bother with selling the wine
b) [last line] U'DEMEI BARZENAYASA - and the cost of the announcer (who announces that the store owner has wine to sell); alt. the cost of the craftsman who drills a hole in the earthenware barrel (Rashi)

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