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Bava Metzia 87

1) [line 1] "VA'YIFTZAR BAM ME'OD..." - "And he pressured them greatly; [and they turned to him, and entered into his house; and he made them a feast, and baked unleavened bread, and they ate.]" (Bereishis 19:3)

2) [line 1] MESARVIN L'KATAN V'EIN MESARVIN L'GADOL - one refuses [the offers of] a lowly person but not [those of] a great person

3) [line 10] "OVER LA'SOCHER" - "[And Avraham listened to Efron; and Avraham weighed to Efron the silver, which he had named in earshot of the Chitim, four hundred Shekels of silver,] in negotiable currency." (Bereishis 23:16)

4) [line 11] KANTAREI - (O.F. centenier - a hundred units of weight) a weight corresponding to 100 Shekalim

5) [line 12] TIKLA - a Shekel

6a) [line 12] KEMACH - ordinary meal; unsifted flour (flour that still includes unwanted parts of the grain stalk)
b) [line 13] SOLES - fine flour

7) [line 18] OCHEL CHULIN B'TAHARAH HAYAH - he was careful that the food that he ate, even though it was Chulin, was Tahor, and that he was Tahor when he ate any food

8) [line 25] L'SHAGER LAH KOS SHEL BERACHAH - to send her the cup over which they blessed HaSh-m for the food that they ate, i.e. the cup of wine of Birkas ha'Mazon (Grace After Meals)

9) [line 28] SHE'YISH'AL ADAM B'ACHSANYA SHELO - (a) a guest should ask his host about the welfare of his hostess. Accordingly, the word "Ayo" that is highlighted by the dots over those letters in the word "Elav" means "Where is *it*?" i.e. the welfare of his hostess (RASHI, TOSFOS); (b) a guest should ask his host about the welfare of his hostess *and* he should ask his hostess about the welfare of his host. Accordingly, the word "Ayo" means "Where is *he*?" (RASHI to Bereishis 18:9)

10) [line 30] "...ACHAREI VELOSI HAYESAH LI EDNAH..." - "[Therefore Sarah laughed within herself, saying,] 'After I am grown old shall I have delicate, beautiful skin, [my Master being old also]?" (Bereishis 18:12)

11a) [line 31] NISBALEH HA'BASAR - the flesh has withered
b) [line 31] RABU HA'KEMATIN - the wrinkles have multiplied
12) [line 31] NIS'ADEN HA'BASAR - the flesh has become delicate and beautiful
13) [line 31] NISPASHTU HA'KEMATIN - (O.F. fronces - wrinkles) the wrinkles have dissipated

14) [line 32] MOSIV - repeat
15) [line 32] SHINAH - related things in a different manner other than the way that they happened (see Insights to Yevamos 65:1-2)

16) [line 33] "VA'TITZCHAK SARAH" - see above, entry #10
17) [line 33] MILEL - said
18) [line 34] GAMAL AVRAHAM ES YITZCHAK BENO - Avraham celebrated the weaning of his son, Yitzchak

19) [line 35] MERANENIM - murmuring

20) [line 35] ASUFI
An Asufi is a person (male or female) whose paternal *and* maternal lineage is in doubt, and the possibility exists that he is a Mamzer (see Background to Bava Kama 38:24). The term is derived from the word Le'esof, to gather or bring in, since he was brought in from the streets not knowing the identity of his parents.

21) [line 39] KELASTER PANIM - countenance
22) [line 42] CHULSHA - sickness [prior to death]
23) [line 43] CHALISH V'ISPACH - [a person] who became sick and got well [afterwards]

24) [line 44] SHELOSHAH CHALA'IN CHALAH ELISHA - Elisha ha'Navi contracted three illnesses in his lifetime. It is possible that Chazal learn this from the verse "V'Elisha Chalah (1) Es Cholyo (2) Asher Yamus Bo (3)" (Melachim II 13:14). Chazal were only able to attribute the sicknesses in his lifetime to the incident of Gechazi (see next entry) and the incident of the bears (see entry #26) since he led an otherwise sinless life (MAHARSHA).

Elisha ha'Navi was a great prophet and was well known as a worker of miracles. Unfortunately, his attendant Gechazi had poor character (Melachim II 4:12-5:27). The verses (ibid. 5:1-24) describe his greed. The Gemara reports that he engaged in practices of Avodah Zarah (Sotah 47a) and licentious behavior (Berachos 10b). He was disrespectful to Elisha, even though he was his teacher (Sanhedrin 100a), and he prevented the public from learning Torah (Sotah ibid.). Elisha tried to persuade him to repent (Sotah ibid. and Sanhedrin 107b) but it was to no avail. Nevertheless, our Gemara states that when Elisha finally gave up and sent him away, he contracted an illness as a result of his action.

(a) When Eliyahu ha'Navi was about to be taken from This World, he asked his student Elisha if he had any last request that he might be able to grant him. Elisha asked that he wished that his power of prophesy would be double that of his teacher. Eliyahu told his student that if he will be present and see the event of Eliyahu being taken from This World, it will be a sign that his spiritual strength is very great and HaSh-m will grant him his wish. (Chazal inform us that Eliyahu brought one person back to life and Elisha was able to bring back two people to life (see RADAK to Melachim II 2:9). Others count the number of miracles performed by these two prophets and find that Elisha worked twice as many miracles as Eliyahu.)
(b) After Eliyahu was taken from This World near the city of Yericho and Elisha witnessed the event, Elisha performed a miracle for the people of Yericho by sweetening their bitter water source using salt. When he walked back to the Shomron through Beis El and Har ha'Karmel, he was accosted by people who had previously supplied Yericho with drinkable water. Since they lost their source of income and they were not believers in HaSh-m, they cursed and insulted Elisha as he approached Beis El. The verse calls them Ne'arim Ketanim, small boys (and our Gemara calls them Tinokos) but the Gemara (Sotah 46b) states that they were called Ne'arim because they were Menu'arim Min ha'Mitvos (empty of Mitzvos). They were called Ketanim because their belief in HaSh-m was small.
(c) Elisha saw with the eye of a prophet that all of them were of questionable lineage, engaged in practices of Avodah Zarah and neither they nor any of their descendants (should they have any) would ever perform a trace of a Mitzvah (Sotah ibid.). He therefore cursed them with the Name of HaSh-m, and two bears came out of the forest and killed forty-two of them. The Gemara (Sotah ibid.) states that the people of Yericho were in part responsible for the deaths since they did not escort Elisha on his way. Our Gemara states that even though he may have been justified in his action, Elisha contracted an illness because of it.

27) [line 47] HA'ELOKIM - Indeed! (using "ha'Elokim," which is an oath, for emphasis)

28) [line 47] KI MORADYA D'LAVROS - (O.F. governail - a boatman's pole) like the pole of a barge (both a pole and a letter Vav are upright and slender)

29) [line 50] MESHAMNIN BEINEHEM - (a) not a high nor a low wage, but like the wages of the ordinary workers of the city (RASHI); (b) the *average* between the highest and the lowest wage arrangements of the city (RAMBAM Hilchos Sechirus 9:2, RAMAH cited by the TUR and SHULCHAN ARUCH CM 331:3)

(a) The Torah grants workers and beasts of burden the right to eat the produce with which they are working in certain situations (Devarim 23:25-26, 25:4). First, the produce must be a product of the earth.
(b) Next, if the produce is attached to the ground, it must be in the final stages of preparation, i.e. when it is being picked. If it is already cut from the ground, it must not have reached the final stage of preparation for which it is normally grown, which is the time when Ma'aser (see Background to Bava Metzia 52:3 and below, entry #49) or Chalah (see below, entry #26) must be taken.

31) [line 50] BI'SHE'AS GEMAR MELACHAH - when it is being picked or cut


32) [line 3] "KI SAVO B'CHEREM RE'ECHA, V'ACHALTA ANAVIM K'NAFSHECHA SAV'ECHA, V'EL KELYECHA LO SITEN." - "When you come into your neighbor's vineyard [as a worker], then you may eat your fill of grapes at your own pleasure, but you shall not put any in your utensil." (Devarim 23:25)

33) [line 9] OLELOS
Olelos are incompletely-formed grape clusters, in which no grapes hang from the tip of the central stem, and the grapes on the side-stems that part from the central stem do not lie on one another. These clusters must be left behind on the vine for the poor, as stated in Vayikra (19:10), "v'Charmecha Lo Se'olel... le'Ani vela'Ger Ta'azov Osam" - "And you shall not glean your vineyard... you shall leave them (the gifts of Pe'ah, Leket, Olelos and Peret) for the poor and the stranger."

34) [line 9] KAMAH - standing grain
35) [line 10] "KI SAVO B'KAMAS RE'ECHA V'KATAFTA MELILOS B'YADECHA, V'CHERMESH LO SANIF AL KAMAS RE'ECHA." - "When you come into the standing grain of your neighbor [as a worker], then you may pluck the ears with your hand [to eat], but you shall not put a sickle to your neighbor's standing grain [to collect it for yourself]." (Devarim 23:26)

36) [line 11] CHALAH
(a) With regard to the Mitzvah of Chalah, the verses state, "...b'Voachem El ha'Aretz...Reishis Arisoseichem Chalah Tarimu Serumah..." - "[Speak to the people of Yisrael, and say to them,] 'When you come into the land [where I bring you, when you eat of the bread of the land, you shall separate a Terumah (tribute) to HaSh-m.] You shall separate the first of your dough for a Terumah; [as you do with the Terumah separated from the grain of the threshing floor, so, too, shall you present this [to the Kohanim.]" (Bamidbar 15:18-20).
(b) Whenever a person kneads a large dough made from one of the five species of grain (wheat, barley, oats, rye or spelt), he must separate a small portion to be given to the Kohen before eating from the dough. This portion is called Chalah. (The requirement to separate Chalah with a Berachah only applies to a dough made from the volume of 43.2 Beitzim of flour (about 10 1/2 cups or 2.48 liters). Approximately half of that amount requires Chalah to be separated without a Berachah.) A baker must separate 1/48 of his dough as Chalah, while a normal homeowner must separate 1/24. If a person did not separate Chalah from the dough before it was baked, it must be separated after it is baked before the baked product can be eaten. Before Chalah is separated, the dough is called "Tavul l'Chalah," and anyone who eats it b'Mezid (intentionally) is liable to the punishments of Malkos and Misah b'Ydei Shamayim (Makos 13a).
(c) Chalah has the Halachos of Terumah, and it must be eaten by Kohanim, their wives and children, while they are Tehorim. A non-Kohen who eats Chalah b'Mezid is liable to Malkos and Misah b'Ydei Shamayim (RAMBAM Hilchos Bikurim 5:14 and Hilchos Terumah 6:6).
(d) Since the verse says, "Reishis *Arisoseichem* Chalah Tarimu Serumah," this teaches that Chalah must be separated only from *dough*, but not from *flour*. If it was separated from flour, it does not have the status of Chalah.

37) [line 15] "[SHIV'AH SHAVU'OS TISPOR LACH;] ME'HACHEL CHERMESH BA'KAMAH [TACHEL LISPOR SHIV'AH SHAVU'OS.]" - "[Seven weeks shall you count; begin to number the seven weeks] from such time as you begin to put the sickle to the grain." (Devarim 16:9)

(a) The method of learning that is being used by our Gemara is called a comparison, or "Meh Matzinu" - "What we have found [in one subject, applies to another subject, also.]" Among the rules of this method is the rule of a "Pirchah" (a question), where even a slight difference between the subjects causes the comparison to collapse, and no connection may be made.
(b) If a Pirchah is asked, the Gemara will bring a "Yochi'ach" or "Tochi'ach" (fem.) (a proof), where another subject, which fulfills the requirements of the Pirchah, is used to rebuild the comparison. A second Pirchah usually follows, where the Yochi'ach subject is brought into question. Then the original subject becomes the Yochi'ach.
(c) The conclusion is v'Chazar ha'Din (the Din goes back and forth), Lo Re'i Zeh k'Re'i Zeh (this subject is not exactly like that subject and vice versa), but the Tzad ha'Shaveh (common denominator) may be used to connect the Halachos of the two subjects, and we may learn a new Halachah from them. The common denominator may also be brought into question, which inhibits learning the new Halachah from the two subjects.

39) [line 24] YESH BAHEN TZAD MIZBE'ACH - they may be brought onto the Mizbe'ach in the form of an offering (wine as a libation and flour as a Minchah offering)

40) [line 26] "[VA'YAV'ER ESH BA'LAPIDIM, VA'YSHALACH B'KAMOS PELISHTIM,] VA'YAV'ER MI'GADISH V'AD KAMAH V'AD KEREM ZAYIS." - "[And when he had set the torches on fire, he let them go into the standing grain of the Philistines,] and burned up both the shocks, and also the standing grain, as well as the olive trees." (Shoftim 15:5)

41) [line 30] KOL BA'ALEI CHERMESH - all produce that is cut with a sickle
42) [line 31] BI'SHE'AS CHERMESH - at the time of the sickle, i.e. as the worker is engaged in harvesting

43) [line 33] D'VAR CHERMESH - produce that is cut with a sickle
44) [line 34] KOL BA'ALEI KAMAH - all produce that stands

45) [line 42] "[B'YOMO SITEN SECHARO,] V'LO SAVO ALAV HA'SHEMESH, [KI ANI HU V'ELAV HU NOSEI ES NAFSHO...]" - "[At his day you shall give him his wages,] and you shall not let the sun go down before you do, [for he is poor, and sets his heart upon it; lest he cry against you to HaSh-m, and it should be a sin to you.]" (Devarim 24:15)

46) [line 47] MOTZETZ - to suck out the juice

47) [line 48] OCHEL U'FATUR (KOVE'A L'MA'ASER)
See below, entry #49.

48) [line 49] ACHILAH GASAH - a forced, gluttonous form of eating

(a) Every fruit (or other produce) that must be tithed may not be eaten b'Achilas Keva (as a normal meal) before its Terumos and Ma'asros have been removed or designated. It may, however, be eaten b'Achilas Ara'i (as a "snack," not as a meal) until it becomes "Hukba l'Ma'aser" (designated for tithing) through an action that demonstrates the final preparation of the fruit for eating. After it is Hukba l'Ma'aser, it is forbidden to eat even b'Achilas Ara'i before the tithes are separated.
(b) Seven actions can designate fruits as Hukba l'Ma'aser:

  • 1. Pickling the fruit
  • 2. Dipping the fruit in salt
  • 3. Starting to prepare the fruit to be eaten through heating (cooking, roasting, etc.)
  • 4. Designating the fruit to be eaten on Shabbos
  • 5. Separating Terumah from the fruit
  • 6. Bringing the fruit into the owner's yard
  • 7. Bringing the fruit to the market for sale
(c) The Amora'im question whether these actions designate the fruit as Hukba l'Ma'aser even if they have not reached the stage of "Nigmerah Melachtan" or only if they have reached the stage of "Nigmerah Melachtan." Nigmerah Melachtan means that the fruit has reached the final stage of preparation for which it is normally grown, such as removing the chaff from grain in the field and making it into an evened pile ("Miru'ach") and squeezing wine-grapes for wine. With regard to bringing the fruit into the owner's yard (#b:6 above, "Chatzer"), all agree that the fruit becomes Hukba l'Ma'aser only after it has reached the stage of Nigmerah Melachtan.

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